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国际发表《21世纪物理学新理论体系对世界物理学流行观点的挑战》在国际《物理学杂志:会议系列》上

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21世纪物理学新理论体系

对世界物理学流行观点的挑战

此文发表否定了现在流行的宇宙大爆炸理论和爱因斯坦提出的广义相对论!在国际《物理学杂志》上发表发布!

点击下面链接打开国际《物理学杂志》发表网址DOI:


https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/2012/1/012133


中文版和英文发表版全文如下:


21世纪物理学新理论体系

对世界物理学流行观点的挑战

周江华

中国河北省秦皇岛市海碧台2-3-2403信箱,邮编:066000电子邮箱:1092375690@qq.com


   要:本文以英国物理学会IOP物理杂志于2020年发表的《21世纪物理学新理论体系》为基础,对当今一些流行的物理学观点提出了挑战!它否定了大爆炸理论、广义相对论、引力波存在的认识论和反物质存在的认识论。它否定了依靠电子对撞机寻找物质世界中最小粒子的研究方法!提出“物光状态”是第五物理状态的认识论;恒星不是由氢和氦组成的,它们也不是核反应;银河系的形成原因与宇宙单位的认识论。本文是对21世纪物理学新理论体系的总结和演绎。

关键词:21世纪;物理学;新理论体系;对于;物理学;流行观点;挑战.

1.

本文以英国物理学会《IOP物理学杂志》于2020年发表的《21世纪物理学新理论体系》为基础,对当今物理学的一些流行观点提出了挑战[1-3]:① 言。② 对大爆炸理论的否定。③ 广义相对论用时间和空间的弯曲来解释引力是完全错误的谬论。④ 电子对撞机永远找不到物质世界中最小的粒子。⑤ 对反物质存在的否定。⑥ 提出“物质光的状态”是第五物理状态的认识论,恒星既不是由氢和氦组成,也不是核反应。⑦ 21世纪物理学新理论体系中新思想的总结与演绎。⑧ 宇宙和银河系的新认识论。⑨ 结论。

2. 对大爆炸理论的否定

《大爆炸理论》述评:大爆炸理论认为宇宙是在137亿年前大爆炸之后由一个稠密而炽热的奇点形成的。1927年,比利时天文学家、宇宙学家乔治·勒马约首次提出大爆炸假说。1929年,美国天文学家哈勃根据这一假设提出了星系红移与星系间距成正比的哈勃定律,并推导出星系相距遥远的宇宙膨胀理论。无论从1922年起,美国天文学家埃德温·哈勃开始观测“红移现象”,“宇宙膨胀”的观点开始形成。还是1929年,埃德温·哈勃有了一个里程碑式的发现:无论你朝哪个方向看,遥远的星系都在迅速远离我们。他认为光波的延长是由于宇宙的膨胀[4]

以上所有关于星系(恒星)远离我们的判断,无非是星光出现衰减红移现象!目前,造成星光衰减和红移现象的原因是人们认为恒星正在远离我们。从来没有人想过,恒星发出的星光的衰减和红移是由其他因素造成的?这是关于世界上流行的物理学观点“大爆炸宇宙学”是否正确的一个重要思考!只有实事求是地梳理科学认识,才能更好地走在自然科学真理的轨道上,使人类的科学文明不断进步。

19022月,在美国航线的波尔休和费拉德菲亚之间发现了不利于无线电波远距离传播的“白夜效应”[4]。发现电磁波在夜间的传播范围是白天的两倍以上。可以发现,“热介质”在白天和夜晚的高低温变化是阻尼阻力,导致电磁辐射在传播路径上衰减,因此,由此可以推断,“3K空间温度热能”是造成星光衰减红移现象的真正原因,这是传播路径中热介质阻尼引起电磁波衰减的最有力证据。因此,本文认为恒星离开我们所引起的星光衰减和红移现象是一种错误的判断。真正的原因是“3K空间温度热能”的存在导致了星光在传播路径上的衰减红移现象,因此星光的衰减红移现象不能代表恒星正在离开我们。目前,仅凭星光衰减和红移现象就认为所有恒星都离开了我们,这是一种错误的判断。根据这样一种错误的理解,大爆炸理论是完全错误的谬论。不管你往哪个方向看,遥远的星系都在迅速地远离我们。我们的地球是宇宙的中心吗?我们的地球是大爆炸的起点吗?这种认为宇宙万物都是由奇点爆炸从无到有创造出来的神学,不是唯物主义的科学态度。大爆炸理论是错误的谬论!

为了引入导体中的电流与空间中的电磁辐射是同一本质属性的新观点,“热能”是“电磁辐射”传播路径上的“电阻”,详见21世纪物理学新理论体系第五部分:电场新认识论[1]

3. 广义相对论中用时空曲率来解释万有引力是完全错误的

所谓时空弯曲引力效应是一种解释行星为什么围绕恒星旋转以及星系为什么是平面系统的理论。时空弯曲效应认为:天体之间的相互吸引更像是在一块布上,大质量的天体会弯曲周围的时空,小天体靠近时会落入这个时空,在离心力的作用下保持相对稳定的轨道。爱因斯坦还解释说:如果一个巨大的天体弯曲时空,它周围的光会改变路径,经过时会以一定角度偏转。这就是著名的爱因斯坦时空弯曲引力效应理论。

当我们用时空的曲率来解释引力现象时,我们甚至不能回答一个简单的问题:为什么人们会被地球吸引,为什么地球的物质会在空间中凝结。时空曲率对引力理论的解释没有科学意义。这只是一个诡辩来解释为什么行星围绕恒星旋转!当21世纪物理学新理论体系”完美地揭示了物质世界中引力和斥力的成因时,就不再需要用时空弯曲的诡辩来解释行星为什么围绕恒星旋转,星系为什么是平面系统。具体论述见《21世纪物理学新理论体系》,第二部分:物质世界新基本认识论,第三部分:物质世界引力排斥场新认识论[1]。主要内容如下:根据“粒子电荷动力学的原子模型”的新认识论,认为物质对热能的吸收和释放是一切物质吸引和排斥的源泉。根据对万有引力的新认识,不同质量的“实体”吸收热能的能力不同,从而产生不同的引力效应。恒星作为一个巨大的“实体”,对“热能”有着巨大的需求,这体现在恒星在宇宙超系统(如太阳系)空间对“热能”的吸收,以满足恒星对“热能”的强烈需求。由于恒星和行星的质量差别很大,而且行星的物质中含有热量,恒星吸热形成的引力控制着行星。同时,根据“星”与“星”之间引力和斥力的平衡距离定律,行星成为恒星的卫星。在恒星系统中,由于行星间引力和斥力的相互依赖,恒星系统中的所有行星都处于同一平面系统结构中。银河系恒星形成的平面系统结构是相同的原理。

总之,行星绕恒星旋转的现象和平面系统效应的形成并不是所谓时空弯曲理论对引力的解释。这是由于恒星和行星之间巨大的质量差异造成的。行星是由恒星吸热形成的强大引力控制的。在恒星和行星之间引力和斥力的平衡距离定律下,行星围绕恒星旋转。在恒星系统中,由于行星间引力和斥力的相互依赖,形成了行星的平面结构效应。

根据这一新理论,恒星之间(行星之间)的“引力与斥力平衡距离定律”是由于恒星之间释放的电磁能量较大,因此恒星之间的平衡距离也较大。行星之间的平衡距离相对较小,因为行星之间释放的电磁能量相对较小。在这个理论框架下,宇宙中恒星的“发射磁场强度”(万有斥力)和“吸收热能能力”(万有引力),以及恒星之间的距离,遵循恒星之间的“引力与斥力平衡距离定律”,确定恒星在宇宙中的动态平衡位置,从而形成整个宇宙中每颗恒星的平衡状态。

新的理论体系认为“万有引力定律”的存在依赖于物质间“热能”的吸收,简言之,物质对热能的吸收就是物质的引力。因此,万有引力是物质吸收热能的内在吸引力。由物质组成的恒星(行星)不能向外太空发射引力波。新观点认为,在物质世界中,只有排斥波从恒星(行星)释放到外层空间,恒星(行星)永远不会向外层空间发射引力波。因为物质的引力是由向内的吸热引起的,所以没有向外的发射力。所谓引力波的发现,是把恒星发出的排斥波看作引力波的错误判断,是在我们不知道物质万有引力的基本原理的前提下的错误理解。关于恒星产生排斥波的原理,请参阅《21世纪物理学新理论体系》第三部分:物质世界引力排斥场新认识论一章[1]

在著名的日全食与无日全食的比较天文现象中发现,当日全食发生时,背景恒星发出的恒星光会向太阳外偏移。新的解释是:当“日全食”发生时,背景恒星的位置会偏离太阳。这是因为背景恒星发出的星光斥力波与太阳发出的太阳光斥力波之间的斥力产生了相互斥力的作用,使恒星发出的背景恒星光的位置偏离太阳。因此,我们可以观察到日全食与无日全食的比较天文现象,发现背景星座位置偏离太阳。这种效应与爱因斯坦用时空曲率解释万有引力无关!

4. 电子对撞机永远无法找到物质世界中最小的粒子

根据21世纪物理学的新理论体系,物质是由“实体”和“热能”组成的。本文认为,当不断增加高压电磁“热能”分解“实体”粒子时,就会出现“实体”粒子无限分解的现象。因此,我们永远找不到物质世界中最小的粒子。通过正负电子对撞机寻找物质世界中最小的粒子将是一条徒劳的道路。随着正负电子对撞机技术的不断提高,高压电磁热能的强度不断增强,将会发现越来越多的微小粒子。探索物质世界中最小粒子的这条路将永无止境。寻找物质世界中最小的粒子,用物质世界中最小的粒子揭示宇宙的奥秘,并不是一种有效的方法。

关于高热能作用于实体并能无限分解“实体”粒子的话题,我们应该从物质世界中粒子的产生和黑洞中的“黑体物质”着手。根据21世纪物理学的新理论体系,物质是“实体”与“热能”的结合体,“实体”与“热能”具有结合的特征。所有物质都含有“热能”。没有“热能”的“纯实体”不能称为“物质”,因为没有“热能”的参与,“纯实体”就不能形成原子力的结构(见[1])。宇宙中的黑洞是由一个“单一实体”组成的。单个实体对热能有很强的吸收能力,因此恒星发出的电磁辐射热光可以被黑洞吞噬。这就是宇宙中黑洞具有光吸收特性的根本原因。在本文中,由“单个实体”形成的“黑洞”称为“实体星”。这种没有原子结构力的“单一实体”称为“实体的物理状态”。

4.1   作用在“实体”上的高热能可以无限分解“实体”粒子大小与物质物理状态变化之间的关系

“热能”分解“实体”产生粒子现象的根源在于:“热能”分解“实体”产生“粒子”现象的原因在于它本质上是物质世界中“热能”与“实体”的内在结合规律。当“实体”以“粒子”的形式出现时,有利于“实体”吸收“热能”。“实体”在“热能”作用下将“实体”分解成“粒子”的现象,实际上是一种有利于“实体”吸收“热能”的自然反应现象。随着热能的增加,“实体”分解形成的“粒子”会变小,因为“实体”粒子越小,得到的“热量”就越多。具体来说,“实体”颗粒越大,“热能”只能与大颗粒表面的“实体”结合,而不能与大颗粒内部的“实体”结合。因此,颗粒造粒的小型化是一种自然的反应现象,可以实现更多的“热能”与“实体”的结合。这就是为什么物质世界中“热能”的大小与分解“实体”产生的粒子大小成反比的规律。这就是为什么“热能”和“实体”的结合可以无限分解“实体”粒子的大小,却永远找不到最小的“实体”粒子的真正原因。注:这与后面描述的“热能”与“实体”的组合原理相同,只能与黑洞“实体星”外表面的“实体”组合,不能与黑洞“实体星”内的“实体”组合。

“实体”粒子小到可以成为“光子”时,就可以实现“热能”和“实体”的完美结合。此时,“实体”的微型化程度已小到“物质-光状态”,可以与电磁辐射同步运行。也许光子根本不是粒子态而是流动态(猜测),这可能是光电子找不到体积边界的原因。稍后,我们将介绍对“物质光的状态”的新认识,这是物质的第五种物理状态。

“热能”是物质世界的基本组成部分。这种物质属性存在于宇宙空间中。3K宇宙温度热能是其真实存在的直接证据。它不是“实体”,它是“热能”,也叫“能量”。热能强度是指单位时空的热能量。当不同强度的“热能”作用于“实体”时,“实体态”呈现粒子状,从而出现具有原子结构的物理态,“单一实体态”变为“物质物理态”。热能对“实体”的作用会改变粒子的大小,促进“粒子”运动速度的变化,从而影响物质物理状态的变化。根据“热能”的大小与“实体”分解产生的颗粒大小成反比的规律,当元素物质的“实体”被不同强度的“热能”分解时,会产生不同的物理态相变效应。物质的粒径按固态、液态、气态、等离子体态和物质光态的顺序减小,粒子的动能依次增大。在固体状态下,粒子最大,动能最小;而在物质光状态下,粒子最小,动能最大,“物质光状态”是指粒子小到足以产生与光同步运动的粒子动能的物理状态,它与热能结合,以电磁辐射的形式传播,成为“物质光状态”。所有物质元素在一定热能的催化下都能转化为“物质光状态”,并以这种物理状态在宇宙空间中传播。这种“物质光状态”是热能作用于恒星物质上,使恒星出现物理态相变为“物质光状态”,从而导致恒星大爆炸,这就是超新星大爆炸的原因。

以上是对物质世界中粒子产生的本质原因的认识,强大的“热能”作用于“实体”,使“实体”分解成无穷小的粒子,这是电子对撞机永远找不到物质世界中最小粒子的新认识论。关于粒子在热能作用下如何形成原子的新认识论,见粒子电荷动力学原子模型的新认识论[1]

5. 反物质存在的否定

反物质发现综述[4]193282日,美国物理学家安德森在宇宙线实践中发现了正电子。不久之后,英国的布拉特证实了这一发现。在发现正电子23年后,美国的张伯伦发现了反质子。从那时起,人们发现了一系列反粒子。

从这些反物质的发现和理解来看,无非是发现了带正电的电子和带负电的质子。根据粒子的正负电荷来判断反物质的存在,还应该谈谈正负电荷的认识论。

5.1   从实验事实反思正负电荷定义的固定模式

同一物质摩擦产生同一电荷的实验事实,直接影响了电子的得失理论[1],因此我们不得不重新思考正负电荷的固定模式是否走上了自然科学真理的轨道,这一点值得我们认真思考。

目前,正负电荷定义的固定模式是:人们把玻璃棒与丝摩擦后的玻璃棒带电称为正电荷;人们把橡胶棒摩擦毛皮后的带电称为负电荷。这种认识是建立在实验事实和现象学原理的基础上的,现象学是对正负电荷固定模式的思想认识。由于缺乏科学理论的指导,这种对正负电荷固定模式的思想认识,将严重阻碍我们揭示粒子正负电荷的本质,使我们无法揭示粒子的正负电荷,不利于揭示粒子正负电荷的成因、原子结构的形成、物质引力的本质。

从作者对E。埃德隆德对电荷本质的深刻理解[5],使我们对物质世界有了更深刻的理解。从物质世界由“实体”和“热能”两种基本性质构成的新认识来看:当“实体”中的“热能”过剩时,物质呈现出正电荷现象。当“实体”中的“热能”缺乏时,物质就会出现负电荷现象。当“实体”中的“热能”饱和时,物质表现为中性电荷现象。

这一新的观点可以解释所有的静电效应[1],它优于现有的电子增益和损耗理论。它只能解释不同物质间的摩擦带电现象,而不能解释同一物质间摩擦产生相同电荷的实验事实。这一新思想不仅可以揭示物质的带电现象,而且对粒子带电现象的成因有清晰的理论认识,有利于揭示粒子的成因、原子结构的形成和引力的本质成因[1]。伴随着物质世界基本构成的新理论,它将有助于揭示摆在我们面前的许多科学问题!

5.2   物质世界中没有反物质

本文认为,不同尺寸的粒子,如电子、中子、质子,只是“热能”与“实体”相互作用分解产生的不同尺寸粒子的现象,而这些粒子的正负电荷只是这些大小不同的“实体”粒子所含的“热能”不平衡时,这些粒子的正负电荷现象。也就是说,负电子是小粒子“实体”中“热能”不足时的负电荷特性,而所谓正电子只是小粒子“实体”中“热能”过剩时的正电荷特性。正质子是大粒子“实体”中“热能”过剩时的正电荷特性,而所谓负质子是大粒子“实体”中“热能”缺乏时的负电荷特性,而不是反物质现象。从这个理论意义上讲,我们目前没有必要去寻找反物质。对反物质的理解只是我们理解电荷本质的一个问题。我们盲目地寻找反物质的存在,却不知道粒子正负电荷的原因。因此,本文认为任何寻找反物质的工作都是毫无意义的!

总之,根据上述“热能”对“实体”的作用可以分解“实体”粒子大小的新认识,以及《21世纪物理学新理论体系》一文对正负电荷性质的新认识,即,当“实体”粒子的“热能”过多时,它们表现出正电荷特性,当“实体”粒子缺少热能时,它们表现出负电荷特性,因此,所谓正电子、负质子等反物质,就是大小不同的“实体”粒子与“热”的结合状态不平衡时,带有正负电荷的现象。因此,物质世界中没有反物质,所有寻找反物质的工作都将毫无意义!

6. 二十一世纪物理学新理论体系:对当前重要物理观点的新认识

6.1   “物质光状态”第五物理态的新认识

根据物质守恒定律,物质的光状态是物质的第五种物理状态。众所周知,物质世界的四种物理状态:固态、液态、气态和等离子态可以称为物质的四种凝聚态。在现代物理学研究中,光状态下粒子的存在得到了充分的肯定。从物质既不能产生也不能失去的观点出发,人们认识到了大量有关转移凝聚态物质质量的事实,如等离子体辉光炬、裂变和聚变反应、各种宇宙射线的辐射、放射性物质的辐射和各种物质的燃烧,我们可以认识到,这些光状态,包括不可见光,都存在着以光状态的形式辐射和传递凝聚态元素的现象。根据物质守恒定律,有必要澄清凝聚态物质质量转化为“物质光态”的现象是否是物质物理学中的一种存在状态。

当各种物质元素转变为气态时,可以通过三种电离方法(热电离、光电离和碰撞电离)将气体转化为等离子体。从等离子体研究的实际情况来看,通过热电离加热各种元素气体形成等离子体时,存在着不同的临界温度点。当加热到20000 K以上时,几乎所有的气体都高度电离,这是所有物质元素在高温下形成等离子体的共同特征。

众所周知,等离子体是电子和离子分离的凝聚态物质。这种状态受到不能形成完全发射的条件的限制,如容器条件,以及地球引力对存在于大气空间的等离子体的影响,使得存在于大气空间的等离子体不能形成完全发射进入宇宙空间。这种等离子体正是受限等离子体态,它是凝聚等离子体物质的第四态。但在太空中,火箭推进剂燃烧以物质光的形式向太空传播。当等离子体约束条件解除时,就会出现等离子体辐射物质的现象。这种状态不能称为约束等离子体状态。可见,等离子体约束态和等离子体非约束态是物质凝集态和非凝聚态的两种状态,“物质光状态”是指电磁热能携带“光物质”以电磁辐射的形式同步发射和运行的第五种物理状态,不应归于等离子体状态。这种“物质光状态”不是“实体”转化为“能量”的现象,而是以“物质光”形式存在的物理状态,即物质的第五种物理状态高于等离子体的第四种物理状态。这种物质光状态的范围是从凝聚态物质的崩解到伴随着电磁辐射的全部发射而形成物质光状态,直到物质光状态停止运动为止。

总之,太阳射线、燃烧辉光、裂变聚变辉光、放射性物质射线、各种宇宙射线,所有“实体”存在的电磁辐射都是物质光状态,在电磁辐射中共同运行的物质就是“光物质”,这是物质存在的第五种物理状态,而“物质光状态”也是物理状态的极限状态。没有物质“实体”的纯电磁辐射不能称为“物质光状态”物理状态。大多数纯电磁辐射都是冷光源。例如,萤火虫发出的荧光是纯电磁辐射,没有“光状态实体”,不能称之为物质光状态。另一个例子是1吨火箭推进剂在太空中燃烧时发出的1吨物质光的状态。这种“物质光状态”是“实体”以光状态的形式存在的第五种物质状态。总之,存在着具有物质质量特性的电磁辐射光。这种“物质光状态”是物质的第五种物质状态,也可以称为物质的第五种物理状态。没有“光状态物质”的光只是纯电磁辐射光。从这个角度看,没有“实体”。因此,这种纯电磁辐射光不是“物质态光”,也不是物质的第五种物理态。本文认为,目前量子力学的研究实际上是对第五种物质态“物质光态”物理态的研究。

6.2   恒星不是由氢和氦构成的,它们也不是核反应

21世纪物理学的新理论体系[1]认为,恒星液相或气相相变的形成不是由核反应引起的,而是由大质量恒星的引力作用引起的,它将“热”从外层空间凝聚到中心,将恒星加热成液体或气体,这也是造成地核高温相变效应的原因。物质的光状态是恒星在太空中解体时需要达到的物理状态。当恒星将其物质加热到高于“物质光状态”的临界温度时,它就会在太空中爆炸,这就是超新星爆炸的原因。爆炸后,恒星物质将以“物质光状态”的形式向太空扩散“黑洞实体星”可称为超新星爆炸后阻止太空连锁反应的终极灭火器。宇宙中“黑洞实体星”的存在,使得我们整个宇宙中星系和恒星之间的平衡与和谐出现了[6-7]

本文认为恒星和地球一样,是由多种元素组成的。我们目前的理论认为,所有恒星都是核反应,由氢和氦组成。这是错误的认识论。真正的原因是由于恒星的巨大质量,热能从外太空向心凝结,引力效应将恒星加热成液态或气态,使其成为液态或气态恒星。所有恒星都是由氢和氦组成的理论是由于对恒星光谱的错误判断。众所周知,每个元素都有特征谱线。由于氢和氦是元素周期表前面的第一和第二元素,当各元素相变为“物质态光”时,氢和氦相变为“物质态光”的临界温度点最低,因此在分析恒星元素组成时,特征谱线也是最强的,通过对氢和氦的光谱分析,可以得出恒星是由氢和氦组成的。对于这种错误的判断,我用一个通俗的比喻让大家明白:根据上述对“物质光的状态”的理解,按照元素周期表从前到后的顺序,各元素辉光转变为“物质态光”时的临界温度点依次升高,因为氢和氦辉光转变为“物质态光”时的临界温度点最低,因为当一颗由99%的铁和1%的氢和氦组成的恒星将自身加热到1000度时,铁:熔点为1538℃,因为恒星中99%的铁仍处于固态,铁不会发出“物质光”的光谱,而只有1%氢和氦组成的恒星已经释放出了氢和氦光谱的强光。这时,当我们利用恒星的光谱来分析恒星的元素组成时,就会得到恒星是由100%的氢和氦组成的错误判断。这颗真正由99%铁组成的恒星,在加热到1000度时仍处于固态,因此没有铁的“物质光态”恒星光谱,这就导致了我们根据恒星光谱分析认为恒星是由氢和氦组成的误解。

总而言之,新的理论体系认为所有恒星都是由多种元素组成的,而不仅仅是氢和氦,就像我们的地球一样。我们之所以观察到恒星的光谱表明所有恒星都是由氢和氦组成的,是因为根据本文对“物质光的状态”的理解,在一定的温度条件下,所有物质元素都能成为“物质光状态”,因为氢和氦排列在周期表的第一位和第二位,氢和氦成为“物质光状态”的临界温度点最低,所以所有恒星中最强的光谱是氢和氦光谱,这导致我们把恒星误认为是氢和氦。恒星的液态或气态结构不是核反应,由于其巨大的质量,它从外层空间吸收更多的热能,将自身加热成液态或气态,使恒星变成液态或气态恒星[1]。注:重元素高温热能产生的原因见[1]

7. 21世纪物理学新理论体系中新思想的总结与演绎

目前对物质世界组成的理解是,物质世界是由粒子组成的,原子中粒子不同叠加数的差异构成了物质世界的各种物质元素,比如氢,原子核内只有一个质子,原子核外只有一个电子,其他元素只是电子数和质子数的差别,根据目前的理论认识:只要掌握向原子核内注入不同数量质子、在原子核外注入不同数量电子的技术,世界上所有的物质元素都能产生。在这一理论框架下:一切物质要素只是在粒子数上有所不同,这一理论归根结底是一种物的构成论。这种以粒子为基础认识物质世界的方法,不能揭示物质世界中粒子和原子结构的形成原因。物质世界由“热能”和“实体”两种基本类型组成,这将能够揭示物质世界中粒子和原子结构形成的原因[7]。根据每个元素代表不同的“实体”的观点,避免了物质世界的单一构成论。关于每一个元素代表一个不同的“实体”的认识论,见21世纪物理学新理论体系的第二部分:物质世界新的基本认识论[1]

我们现在认识到的“物质世界”是由基本单位“原子”构成的“物质世界”。因此,新的理论体系既然提出了“实体”与“热能”结合形成物质世界,就有必要回答“实体”与“热能”如何相互作用产生物质世界基本单位“原子”的问题。关于如何产生“物质世界”的基本单位“原子”这一重要问题的答案,见“21世纪物理学新理论体系”一文第二部分的“粒子电荷的动态原子模型”[1]。这种“粒子电荷的动态原子模型”描述了“实体”与“热能”相互作用产生“原子”的形成过程,揭示了“实体”与“热能”相互作用产生“原子”的真正原因。这种新的“粒子电荷动态原子模型”回答了“物质世界”的基本单元“原子”产生和形成的原因。根据“粒子电荷的动态原子模型”的新观点,各种物质元素的原子结构应该用电子从原子核溢出的频率和电子群的数目来表示,而不是用几个质子和电子的数目来表示。新的表述在《21世纪物理学研究的新视野》中有详细的介绍[7]

根据21世纪物理学的新理论体系,物质世界由物质属性“实体”和物质属性“热能”两种基本类型构成:“物质属性”是指物质的组成部分,“物质属性”的单一存在不能称为物质。物质是“实体”与“热能”结合的产物,一切“物质”都含有热能,没有“热能”就不能称之为“物质”。黑洞中的“单一实体”是一种没有原子结构的物理“实体状态”,本文称之为“黑洞实体星”。空间分布的3K宇宙温度的“热能”是独立存在于空间中的“单一热能”。空间中独立的3K“热能”是星光在空间传播的阻尼阻力,是星光在远距离传播衰减的原因。当“热能”和“实体”的结合状态不平衡时,物质呈现出不同的正负电荷。当“热能”和“实体”的结合随着热能的逐渐增加而增加时,“实体”的微粒微化程度将不断增加,使微粒微化程度可以无限小,从而改变物质的物理状态,改变相变,它的顺序是:实体态、固态、液态、气态、等离子态,“物质的光状态”,当“物质的光状态”进入“单个实体”时,它可以使“实体态”相变为“固态”,然后进入物质物理状态的下一个循环[7]。上述:(1)实体状态;(2)固态;(3)液态;(4)气态;(5)等离子体状态;(6)“物质的光状态”,“六种物理状态”与“星”的对应关系如图1所示。


1.六种物理状态与“星”的对应关系

(1)实体

状态

实体+热能=物质

黑洞实体星

(黑洞)

(2)固体

状态

(3)液态

状态

(4)气态

状态

(5)等离子体状态

(6)物质的光状态

物质星

超新星爆炸


本文认为,试图通过寻找物质世界的最小单位粒子来揭示物质世界构成的奥秘,是沿着现象学原理发展起来的一套理解物质世界构成的方法,是一种方法论和方向上的错误。未来,随着人类增强高压和强热能技术的不断进步,热能分解成粒子的趋势将永无止境,不仅有介子、强子、胶子、层子、轻子等我们现在认识的100多种奇异粒子。我们会发现更多的微粒。我们永远找不到物质世界中最小的粒子。因此,本文认为所有探索物质世界中最小粒子的努力都是徒劳的。如果我们继续使用这些不同质量的粒子,采用定义固定模式的思想,用各种方法解释许多粒子,如“介子、强子、胶子、层子、轻子”,以及未来将要命名的无数个“n-son”和“x-son”,用来解释原子核中的各种粒子,这将不可避免地导致对原子核结构中许多粒子的识别这是一个混乱的局面。根据21世纪物理学新理论体系的新理论观点,根据“热能”的大小与分解“实体”产生的粒子大小成反比的规律,以及对正负电荷产生原因的新认识,我们将对100多种不同大小的奇异粒子及其电荷有一个简单而清晰的认识[7]。人类再也不会为大量的奇异粒子而不知所措了!

综上所述,这一新理论是建立在物质世界中有两种物理性质不同的“实体”和“热能”的基础上的。它是从两种不同基本类型的“物质属性”相互作用的角度对物质世界的一种新认识。这种新的认识论可以揭示粒子形成的原因,原子结构的形成和物质的引力,以及物质的排斥力。在新的理论体系中,对元素周期表中多元素“实体”存在的新认识是物质的多实体构成理论。它不是简单的粒子数叠加的元素构成理论。对新理论体系中元素的理解是,铀质子的物理化学性质即使放入铁原子中也无法改变!每种元素的固体颗粒都有自己的物理和化学性质。在这个理论框架下,各种元素原子中的粒子是由具有不同物理化学性质的“实体”粒子组成的。在这个理论框架下,“物质中的实体”代表“物质的质量”,“物质中的热能”代表“物质的能量”。

8. 宇宙和银河系的新认识论

8.1   宇宙中存在超大质量黑洞的原因

根据上述认识,“物质光的状态”是恒星大爆炸的物理状态,因为黑洞是由“单一实体”组成的。虽然它不是物质的“固态”原子物理态,但它是一种比“固态”原子物理态更稳定的物理态。这种物理状态不能直接形成“物质光状态”,也不会出现恒星相变为“物质光状态”而导致大爆炸解体的问题。因此,“黑洞实体星”的质量可以无限增大,从而可以在宇宙空间中存在,这就是宇宙中存在超极大“黑洞”的原因,即宇宙中存在超极大“黑洞实体星”现象。

8.2   星系“黑洞实体星”具有强内聚引力的原因

银河系结构的中心是一颗超大质量的“黑洞实体星”。根据新的理论体系,物质是“实体”和“热能”结合的产物“实体”与“热能”具有组合的特点。因此,由“单一实体”组成的“黑洞实体星”具有很强的“热能”吸收特性。由于“物质星”的组成中含有热能,位于星系中心的超大“黑洞实体星”吸收了宇宙超大系统空间的热能,从而对星系中所有“物质星”天体形成向心凝聚引力效应。因此,银河系依靠“黑洞实体星”将所有物质恒星和天体凝聚成一个独立的银河系结构。

8.3   “黑洞-单实体星”相变到物质态的形成机制

黑洞是一个“单一实体星”。虽然这种“单一实体物理态”不能直接形成“物质光态”而引发大爆炸问题,但因为“黑洞实体星”具有吸收热能的特性,由于“热能”的不断增加,会使“黑洞实体星”的外表面变为“固体”物理状态,从而使“黑洞实体星”在黑洞表面存在多种状态的物质。这样,当“单体”黑洞外表面连续产生的物质量较大时,物质体将与“单体”黑洞表面分离(物质体分离的具体原因将在后面讨论),并根据逃逸质量,将产生不同质量的物体:恒星、行星、小行星、彗星和其他已知天体。随着从“黑洞实体星”逃逸出来的“恒星”和其他天体数量的增加,围绕“黑洞实体星”的银河系天体结构形成。实际上,“黑洞实体星”是通过吸收宇宙超系统空间的热能,不断加热自己的“实体”形成星系物质,直至“黑洞实体星”逐渐缩小消失的过程,也就是说,当星系中心的“黑洞实体星”大部分成为原子物质的物理状态,并与“黑洞实体星”分离之后,星系中心的“黑洞实体星”的引力将逐渐下降直至消失,导致星系解体。解体后,星系中所有的“物质星”都会扩散到宇宙的更大空间,造成这个时空中的物质湍流。

8.4   星系中心“黑洞实体星”释放含热能“星”的机制

对于上述观点,有人会质疑,既然“黑洞实体星”吸热引力巨大,它怎么能发出“星、星”呢?本文认为,如果黑洞“单一实体”只有很强的吸热引力,那么银河系中的所有恒星,包括我们的地球,早已被银河系中心的“黑洞实体星”吞噬。因此,我认为黑洞在吸收热量形成强大引力的同时,也有释放热量的机制。原子星(恒星、行星)依靠质子释放电磁热能,从而形成恒星(行星)进出热能的平衡机制[1]。黑洞是由“单一实体”构成的,没有质子,因此不能通过质子释放电磁辐射释放热能。因此,本文认为“黑洞实体星”的热能释放是通过释放含有热能的物质”来完成的。这样,各种含有热能的“物质”从“黑洞实体星”的外表面释放出来,使“黑洞实体星”保持了热能进入和释放的平衡。

8.5   银河系的每一个旋臂都是由“黑洞实体星”沿着这条路径不断释放各种“星”而形成

因为“黑洞实体星”是由“单个实体”组成的,它具有很强的吸热能力。当大量热能进入“黑洞实体星”的“单一实体”时,具有原子结构力的“物质”会出现在外表面,使“黑洞实体星”的外表面复活为固体物质。随着热能收集量的增加,外表面会出现大量的物质。由于“黑洞实体星”是一个没有动能的“单一实体”,当大量具有动能和热能的物质体出现在外表面时,由于“物质体之间引力和斥力的相互作用规律”,较大的物质体之间会产生强大的斥力。例如,当一颗恒星的质量与“黑洞实体星”表面的物质发生排斥力时,“黑洞实体星”就会将“恒星”从“黑洞实体星”的外表面排斥出去,使“恒星”成为“黑洞”诞生的一颗新星。从“黑洞实体星”外表面逃逸出来的“实体质量”与“黑洞实体星”从宇宙中吸收的热能所产生的“物质”量有关。因此,根据逃逸质量的大小,“黑洞实体星”产生了恒星、行星、小行星、彗星等各“物质星”现象。由于在“黑洞实体星”附近有许多新生的“星”,星系中心的“星”密度很高。

每一个刚刚从“黑洞实体星”表面分离出来的物质体都是一颗新星。由于诞生恒星之间存在“引力斥力平衡距离定律”,一颗恒星推动另一颗恒星,每颗恒星带领自己的星团相继、连续、浩瀚地离开“黑洞实体星”,形成了巨大的银河旋臂带效应。银河系的四个巨大旋臂(见图2)是依次从“黑洞实体”表面分离出来的恒星路径,一个接一个。也就是说,旋臂带是从母星发射的。一颗恒星推动另一颗恒星,因此形成了巨大旋臂带的效应。旋臂带上的“星”遵循引力斥力平衡间距定律,并围绕“黑洞实体星”旋转!因此,银河系形成了壮观的旋臂结构。


2.银河系四大旋臂示意图

457247dc57cb53884ec640c1eb3cc4f.jpg


在这个理论框架中,星系旋臂带末端的“星”元素的组成是“黑洞实体星”初始状态时最外层的“实体”元素的组成。银河系“黑洞实体星”起源附近的恒星是“黑洞实体星”的新生恒星,而银河系边缘附近的恒星是“黑洞实体星”中较早出现的古老恒星。假设这一观点是在自然科学真理的轨道上,那么位于旋臂末端和银河系边缘的太阳星就是诞生于银河系中心早期的一颗古老恒星。太阳系的所有卫星几乎同时与太阳脱离“黑洞实体”。

8.6   银河系的形成机制和归宿

银河系的形成机制:银河系的初始状态只是一个没有卫星超质量的“黑洞实体星”。这颗巨大的“黑洞实体星”逐渐吸收宇宙空间的热能,通过持续加热阶段将“黑洞单一实体”转化为“物质”,逐渐缩小“黑洞单一实体”,将“黑洞实体”转化为物质,在银核周围形成物质态的“星”球,从而产生了银河系的结构。

星系的最终归宿:通过“黑洞实体星”不断吸收热能,沿着旋臂路径不断释放物质星,最终形成星系的旋臂结构。因此,银河系是银河系中心的“黑洞实体星”转变为物质星后的膨胀过程。银河系中的所有恒星和天体都是从黑洞实体的表面分离出来的。这个过程是“黑洞实体星”从外层空间吸收热能,在“黑洞实体星”的外表面产生物质。“黑洞实体星”吸收的热能越多,“黑洞实体星”外表面的“实体”分离形成物质的速度就越快,直到“黑洞实体星”不断吸收外层空间的热能,最后“单个实体”被分离“全部转化为”物质状态”。此时,星系凝聚的引力下降,星系将解体。解体后,银河系中所有的物质恒星和天体都会扩散到宇宙中,造成这个时空中的物质湍流。这是银河系的最终结果。

总之,星系的形成机制是超大质量“黑洞实体星”通过“单实体态”吸收宇宙热能形成“物质星”系统的演化过程。“黑洞实体星”初始状态的总质量等于物质星系完全形成后所有天体的总质量之和。星系的形成机制是“单一实体状态”向“物质状态”转化的过程。

8.7   可见宇宙是由宇宙的每一个“物质时空单位”组成的猜想

从上述观点来看,星系中心的“黑洞实体星”越小,星系就越容易解体。当一个星系的中心有一个大的“黑洞实体星”时,它就是一个稳定的星系,或者说是星系形成的初始状态。也许我们的宇宙中有无数看不见的“黑洞实体星”。本文认为“热能”是“能”,“单一热能”是“正能态”,“单一实体”是“负能态”。巨大的“黑洞实体星”都是掠夺“热能”的“单一实体”负能态,因此“黑洞实体星”具有相互掠夺“热能”的特点,从而产生“黑洞实体星”之间斥力的相互回避效应,这相当于负电荷之间的排斥效应[1]。正是由于宇宙中巨大的“黑洞实体星”之间的排斥力,“黑洞实体星”才将宇宙中的“实体”空间分割开来!每个“黑洞实体星”代表一个划分宇宙“实体”空间的独立单元,可以称为“宇宙实体时空单元”,宇宙是由这种“实体”空间的独立单元构成的。由于“黑洞实体星”可以演化为物质星系统,“宇宙实体时空单元”的未来也可以称为“宇宙物质时空单元”。因此,宇宙也可以说是由每一个“宇宙物质的时空单位”组成的。这是本文的新理解,即可见宇宙是由宇宙的每一个“物质时空单元”组成的猜想。

一句话,每个“黑洞实体星”形成的“宇宙实体时空单位”就是“宇宙单位”,宇宙就是由这样无数个“宇宙实体时空单位”组成的。因为“黑洞实体星”是一个没有热量、负能量状态为“无光”的“单一实体”,宇宙中究竟存在多少看不见的初始“黑洞实体星”?因为我们无法观察到“宇宙实体时空单位”的数量,我们无法通过可见度来观察宇宙的大小。在看不见的宇宙中,处于“宇宙实体时空单元”初始状态的“黑洞实体星”的数量将是唯物主义永恒的谜团,我们只能说我们可以观测到“宇宙物质时空单元”,这是一个已经演化成可见的“物质星”系统的宇宙,“宇宙物质的时空单位”是我们所能看到的宇宙的大小。这是本文的新理解,即可见宇宙是由宇宙的每一个“物质时空单元”组成的猜想。

9. 结论

虽然本文不能回答“实体”和“热能”是如何产生的,也不能回答宇宙中有多少“热能”和“实体”,也不能回答我们的宇宙有多大。但这比从粒子的角度理解物理世界更进一步。这种“新理论体系”是建立在物质世界中“实体”和“热能”两种不同基本类型的“物质属性”之上的。它是从两种基本类型的“物质属性”相互作用的角度对物质世界的深入理解。这种新的认识论可以揭示粒子形成的原因,原子结构形成的原因,物质引力和排斥力形成的原因。它将能够揭示更多目前理论难以解释的科学问题[1][7]

本文是对21世纪物理学新理论体系的总结和演绎。它是关于银河系结构形成和宇宙组成的一种新的认识论。关于21世纪物理学新理论体系的更多新观点,请参阅文献[1-3,6-7]

参考文献

[1] 周江华。21世纪物理学的新理论体系。2020年。物理:Conf.Ser1634 012103.IOP发布.DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1634/1/012103

[2] 周江华。揭示重力形成的原因。第六届中国光电探测新技术及其应用研讨会。北京。2019123日至5日。©2020)版权所有光学仪器工程师协会(SPIE)。DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2564978

[3] 周江华。物理学基础研究的革命将开创星际空间飞行器研究的新纪元。伦敦(ICEI 2020):第五届信息与教育创新国际会议论文集,20207月,第89-95页,出版单位:计算机协会纽约美国.DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1145/3411681.3411687

[4] 申先甲、张锡新、祁有龙,物理学史简编物理学简史。中国山东教育出社。1985

[5] 宋玉升、李新章、惠和兴、汪康懋译。诺贝尔物理学奖获得者讲座(卷一)。中国科学出版社,1985年。

[6] 周江华。物质光状态的存在是第五种物理状态吗?潜在科学。1990 (5): 7-13.

[7] 周江华。21世纪物理学研究的新视野。吉林:科学技术出版社,2005:1-241

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IOP Publishing英国物理学会出版社)《物理学杂志:会议系列》见刊

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The challenge of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century to the popular views of physics in the world

Jiang Hua Zhou

P.O. Box 2-3-2403, hai bi tai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China 066000.Tel:0086-18003352823   E-mail: boss@21ufo.com    

Abstract. This paper is based on the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century published by the British Physical Society IOP Journal of physics in 2020. It is a challenge to some popular views of physics today! It negates the big bang theory, general relativity, epistemology of gravitational wave existence, and epistemology of antimatter existence. It denies the research method of relying on the electron Collider to find the smallest particle in the material world! It is put forward that "the state of matter light" is the epistemology of the fifth physical state; stars are not composed of hydrogen and helium, nor are they nuclear reactions; the formation reason of Galactic System and the epistemology of cosmic unit. This paper is a summary and deduction of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century.

1. Introduction

This paper is based on the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century published by the British Physical Society IOP Journal of physics in 2020. It is a challenge to some popular views of physics today[1-3]: ① Introduction. ② The negation of the big bang theory. ③ The general relativity is a completely wrong fallacy to explain gravity by the bending of time and space. ④ The electron collider will never be able to find the smallest particle in the material world. ⑤ The negation of antimatter existence. ⑥ It is proposed that "the state of matter light" is the epistemology of the fifth physical state, and that stars are neither composed of hydrogen and helium nor nuclear reaction. ⑦ The summary and deduction of new ideas in the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. ⑧ A new epistemology of the universe and the Galactic system. Conclusion.

2. The negation of the big bang theory

Review of "the big bang theory": the big bang theory holds that the universe was formed by a dense and hot singularity after a big bang 13.7 billion years ago. In 1927, Belgian astronomer and cosmologist Georges Lema î tre put forward the big bang hypothesis for the first time. In 1929, the American astronomer Hubble proposed the Hubble's law that the redshift of galaxies is directly proportional to the distance between galaxies according to the hypothesis, and deduced the cosmic expansion theory that galaxies are far away from each other. No matter from 1922, American astronomer Edwin Hubble began to observe the "redshift phenomenon", the view of "cosmic expansion" began to form. In 1929, Edwin Hubble made a landmark discovery: no matter which direction you look, distant galaxies are rapidly moving away from us. He believes that the lengthening of light waves is due to the expansion of the universe[4].   

All the above judgments about galaxies (stars) moving away from us are nothing more than the fact that the starlight appears the phenomenon of attenuation redshift! At present, the reason for the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift is that people think that stars are moving away from us. No one has ever thought that the attenuation and redshift of starlight emitted by stars is caused by other factors? This is an important thinking about whether the popular view of physics in the world "Big Bang cosmology" is correct! Only by combing the scientific cognition according to the facts can we better walk on the track of natural science truth and make the scientific civilization of human progress continuously.

In February 1902, the "white night effect" which is not conducive to the long-distance propagation of radio waves was found between porthew and ferraderfiea on the American route[4]. It is found that the propagation range of electromagnetic waves at night is more than twice as large as that in the daytime. It can be found that the variation of high and low temperature of "thermal medium" during the day and night is the damping drag which causes the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the propagation path Therefore, it can be inferred that "3K space temperature thermal energy" is the real reason for the red shift phenomenon of starlight attenuation, which is the most powerful proof of electromagnetic wave attenuation caused by thermal medium damping in the propagation path. Therefore, this paper holds that the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift caused by stars leaving us is a wrong judgment. The real reason is that the existence of "3K space temperature thermal energy" causes the attenuation redshift phenomenon of starlight in the propagation path, so the attenuation redshift phenomenon of starlight can not represent that the stars are leaving us. At present, it is a wrong judgment to assume that all stars are leaving us just by the phenomenon of starlight attenuation and redshift. According to such a wrong understanding, the theory of the Big Bang is a completely wrong fallacy. No matter which direction you look, distant galaxies are rapidly moving away from us. Is our earth the center of the universe? Is our earth the starting point of the big bang? This theology that all things in the universe are created out of nothing by a singularity explosion is not a materialist scientific attitude. The big bang theory is a wrong fallacy!

In order to introduce the new viewpoint that the current in conductor and electromagnetic radiation in space are the same essential attribute, "heat energy" is the "resistance" on the propagation path of "electromagnetic radiation", please refer to part V: new epistemology of electric field [1] of new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century for details.

3. The explanation of universal gravitation by space-time curvature in general relativity is totally wrong

The so-called space-time bending gravitational effect is a theory made up to explain why planets revolve around stars and why galaxies are planar systems. The space-time bending effect holds that: the mutual attraction between celestial bodies is more like being on a cloth, the massive celestial bodies will bend the surrounding space-time, and the small celestial bodies will fall into this space-time when they are close, and keep relatively stable orbit under the action of centrifugal force. Einstein also explained: if a massive celestial body bends space-time, the light around it will change its path and deflect at a certain angle when it passes by. This is the famous Einstein's theory of space-time bending gravitational effect.

When we use the curvature of space-time to explain the phenomenon of gravity, we can't even answer the simple question why people are attracted by the earth and why the earth's matter condenses in space. The curvature of space-time has no scientific significance to the explanation theory of gravitation. It is just a sophistry to explain why planets revolve around stars!   When the "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century" perfectly reveals the causes of gravitational and repulsive forces in the material world, it is no longer necessary to use the sophistry of space-time bending to explain why planets revolve around stars and why galaxies are planar systems. For detailed discussion, see "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century", Part II: new basic epistemology of material world, Part III: new epistemology of gravitational repulsive field of material world [1]. The main contents are as follows:   According to the new epistemology of "atomic model of particle charge dynamics", it is considered that the absorption and release of heat energy by matter is the source of attraction and repulsion of all matter. According to the new understanding of universal gravitation, different mass "entities" have different ability to absorb heat energy, resulting in different gravitational effects. As a huge "entity", stars have a huge demand for "heat energy", which is reflected in the absorption of "heat energy" by stars in the space of cosmic super system (such as solar system) to meet the strong demand of stars for "heat energy". Due to the great difference in mass between stars and planets, and the fact that the matter of planets contains heat, the gravitational force formed by the heat absorption of stars controls the planets. At the same time, according to the law of equilibrium distance of gravitational force and repulsive force between "stars" and "stars", planets become the satellites of stars. In the stellar system, due to the mutual dependence of gravitation and repulsion between planets, all planets in the stellar system are in the same plane system structure. The plane system structure of galactic star formation is the same principle.

In a word, the phenomenon of planets rotating around stars and the formation of plane system effect are not the explanation of gravity by the so-called space-time bending theory. This is due to the huge mass difference between stars and planets. Planets are controlled by the strong gravitation formed by the heat absorption of stars. Under the balance distance law of gravitation and repulsion between stars and planets, the planets rotate around the stars. In the stellar system, due to the mutual dependence of gravitation and repulsion between planets, the plane structure effect of planets is formed.

According to the new theory, the "law of equilibrium distance between gravitation and repulsion forces" among stars (between planets) is that because the electromagnetic energy released between stars is large, the equilibrium distance between stars is also large. The balance distance between the planets is relatively small, because the electromagnetic energy released between the planets is relatively small. Under this theoretical framework, the "emission magnetic field strength" (Universal repulsive force) and "absorption thermal energy ability" (Universal Gravitation) of stars in the universe, as well as the distance between stars, follow the "law of balance distance between gravitation and repulsive force" between stars, determine the dynamic equilibrium position of stars in the universe, thus forming the equilibrium state of each star in the whole universe.

The new theoretical system holds that the existence of "law of universal gravitation" depends on the absorption of "heat energy" between matter,In short, the absorption of heat energy by matter is the gravitation of matter. Therefore, gravitation is the inward attraction of matter to absorb heat energy. Stars (planets) which are made up of matter can not emit gravitational waves into outer space. The new viewpoint holds that in the material world, only repulsive waves are released from stars (planets) into outer space, and stars (planets) will never emit gravitational waves into outer space. Because the gravitation of matter is caused by inward heat absorption, there is no outward emission force. The so-called discovery of gravitational waves is a misjudgment that the repulsive waves emitted by stars are regarded as gravitational waves, and it is a wrong understanding on the premise that we do not know the essential principle of the universal gravitation of matter.   As for the principle of repulsive wave produced by stars, please refer to the third part of "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century": the chapter of new epistemology of gravitational repulsive field of material world [1].

In the famous comparative astronomical phenomena of total solar eclipse and no total solar eclipse, it is found that when the total solar eclipse occurs, the stellar light emitted by the background star will shift to the outside of the sun. The new explanation is: when the "total solar eclipse" occurs, the position of the background star will deviate from the sun. This is because the repulsive force between the repulsive wave of starlight emitted by the background star and the repulsive wave of sunlight emitted by the sun produces the effect of mutual repulsive force, which makes the position of the background star light emitted by the star deviate from the sun. Therefore, we can observe the comparative astronomical phenomenon of total solar eclipse and no total solar eclipse, and find that the position of the background constellation deviates from the sun.   This effect has nothing to do with Einstein's explanation of gravitation with space-time curvature!

4. The electron collider will never be able to find the smallest particle in the material world

According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, matter is composed of "entity" and "heat energy". This paper holds that when the "entity" particles are decomposed by continuously increasing the high-voltage electromagnetic "heat energy", the phenomenon of infinite decomposition of "entity" particles will appear. Therefore, we can never find the smallest particles in the material world. It will be a futile road to find the smallest particles in the material world through the electron positron collider. With the continuous improvement of the technology of the Electron Positron Collider to enhance the intensity of high-voltage electromagnetic heat energy, more and more tiny particles will be found. This road to explore the smallest particles in the material world will never end. It is not an effective way to find the smallest particles in the material world and reveal the mystery of the universe with the smallest particles in the material world.

With regard to the topic that high thermal energy acts on the entity and can infinitely decompose the "entity" particles, we should start from the generation of particles in the material world and the "blackbody matter" in the black hole. According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, matter is the combination of "entity" and "heat energy", and "entity" and "heat energy" have the characteristics of combination. All substances contain "heat energy". A "pure entity" without "heat energy" can not be called "substance", because "pure entity" can not form the structure of atomic force without the participation of "heat energy" (see [1]). The black hole in the universe is composed of a "single entity". The single entity has a strong absorption of heat energy, so the electromagnetic radiation heat light emitted by stars can be swallowed by the black hole. This is the fundamental reason why the black hole in the universe has light absorption characteristics. In this paper, the "black hole" formed by "single entity" is called "entity star". This "single entity" without atomic structural force is called "physical state of entity".

4.1. The relationship between the size of "entity" particles and the change of physical state of matter can be infinitely decomposed by high thermal energy acting on "entity"

The origin of the phenomenon that "heat energy" decomposes "entity" to produce particles is as follows: The reason why "heat energy" decomposes "entity" and produces "particle" phenomenon is that it is essentially the internal combination law of "heat energy" and "entity" in the material world. When "entity" appears in the form of "particle", it is beneficial for "entity" to absorb "heat energy". The phenomenon that "entity" decomposes "entity" into "particles" under the action of "heat energy" is actually a natural reaction phenomenon which is beneficial for "entity" to absorb "heat energy". With the increase of heat energy, the "particles" formed by the decomposition of "entity" will become smaller, because the smaller the "entity" particles are, the more "heat" they get. Specifically, the larger the "entity" particles are, the "heat energy" can only be combined with the "entity" on the surface of the large particles, but not with the "entity" inside the large particles. Therefore, the miniaturization of particle granulation, a natural reaction phenomenon, can realize more combination of "heat energy" and "entity". This is why there is a law that the size of "heat energy" in the material world is inversely proportional to the size of particles produced by decomposing "entity".   This is the real reason why the combination of "heat energy" and "entity" can infinitely decompose the size of "entity" particles and never find the smallest "entity" particles.   Note: This is the same as the combination principle of "thermal energy" and "entity" described later, which can only be combined with the "entity" on the outer surface of the black hole   "entity Star", but not with the "entity" in the black hole "entity Star".

When the "entity" particles are small enough to be "photons," the, the perfect combination of "heat energy" and "entity" can be realized. At this time, the microminiaturization degree of "entity" has been as small as "material light state" which can run synchronously with electromagnetic radiation. Perhaps photon is not particle state but flow state at all (guess), which may be the reason why photoelectron can not find volume boundary. Later, we will introduce the new understanding of "the state of matter light", which is the fifth physical state of matter.

"Heat energy" is the basic composition of the material world. This kind of material property exists in the cosmic space. 3K cosmic temperature heat energy is the direct evidence of its real existence. It is not "entity", it is "thermal energy", also known as "energy". Thermal energy intensity refers to the amount of thermal energy per unit space-time. When the "heat energy" of different intensities acts on the "entity", the "entity state" appears particle like, thus the physical state with atomic structure appears, and the "single entity state" changes to the "physical state of matter". The effect of "heat energy" on "entity" will change the size of particles, promote the change of "particle" movement speed, and thus affect the change of physical state of matter. According to the law that the size of "heat energy" is inversely proportional to the particle size produced by the decomposition of "entity", when the "entity" of elemental matter is decomposed by different intensity of "heat energy", there will be different physical state phase transition effects. The particle size of substance decreases in the order of solid state, liquid state, gas state, plasma state and material light state The kinetic energy of the particles increases in turn. In the solid state, the particle is the largest and the kinetic energy is the smallest, while in the state of material light, the particle is the smallest and the kinetic energy is the largest,"Matter light state" refers to the physical state in which particles are small enough to produce kinetic energy of particles moving synchronously with light, Combined with heat energy, it spreads in the form of electromagnetic radiation and becomes "material light state". All material elements can be transformed into "material light state" under the catalysis of a certain amount of heat energy, and propagate in the cosmic space in this way of physical state.   This kind of "material light state" is that the thermal energy acts on the stellar material to make the star appear physical state phase change into "material light state", which leads to the big explosion of the star, which is the reason for the big explosion of supernovae.

The above is the understanding of the essential causes of particles in the material world, The strong "heat energy" acts on the "entity" and makes the "entity" decompose into infinitesimal particles, which is the new epistemology that the electron collider can never find the smallest particle in the material world.   For the new epistemology of how particles form atoms under the action of heat energy, see the new epistemology of particle charge dynamic atomic model [1].

5. The negation of antimatter existence

Review of antimatter discovery [4]: on August 2, 1932, American physicist Anderson discovered positron in cosmic ray practice. Shortly after that, Blatter of England confirmed the discovery in England. Twenty three years after the discovery of positron, chamberlain of the United States discovered antiproton. Since then, a series of antiparticles have been discovered.

From the discovery and understanding of these antimatter, nothing more than the discovery of positively charged electrons and negatively charged protons. Judging the existence of antimatter according to the positive and negative charge of particles, we should also talk about the epistemology of positive and negative charge.

5.1. Reflection on the fixed mode of definition of positive and negative charges through experimental facts

The experimental fact that the same charge is produced by the friction of the same substance has a direct impact on the theory of gain and loss of electrons [1], so we have to rethink whether the fixed mode of positive and negative charges is on the track of the truth of natural science, which is worthy of our serious consideration.

At present, the fixed mode of definition of positive and negative charges is: people call the electrification of glass rod after rubbing silk with glass rod as positive charge; people call the electrification of rubber rod after rubbing fur with rubber rod as negative charge. This understanding is based on the experimental facts and the principle of "phenomenology", which is an ideological understanding of the fixed pattern of positive and negative charges. Due to the lack of guidance of scientific theory, this kind of ideological understanding of the fixed pattern of positive and negative charges will seriously hinder us to reveal the essence of the positive and negative charges of particles, and make us unable to reveal the positive and negative charges of particles Therefore, it is not conducive to reveal the cause of the positive and negative charge of particles, the formation of atomic structure, and the essence of matter gravitation.   

From the author's development of E. Edlund's deep understanding of the essence of charge [5], we have a deeper understanding of the material world. From the point of view of the new understanding that the material world is composed of two basic types of material properties: "entity" and "heat energy":   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is excess, the substance shows a positive charge phenomenon.   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is lacking, the matter shows the phenomenon of negative charge.   When the "heat energy" in the "entity" is saturated, the matter behaves as a neutral charge phenomenon.

This new point of view can explain all the electrostatic effects[1], which is superior to the current theory of electron gain and loss. It can only explain the phenomenon of friction electrification between different substances, but not the experimental fact that the same charge is generated by friction between the same substances. This new idea can not only reveal the charged phenomenon of matter, but also have a clear theoretical understanding of the causes of the charged phenomenon of particles, which is conducive to reveal the causes of particles, the formation of atomic structure and the essential causes of gravity [1].   Along with the new theory of the basic composition of the material world, it will help to reveal many scientific problems in front of us!

5.2. There is no antimatter in the material world

This paper holds that the particles of different sizes, such as electrons, neutrons and protons, It's just the phenomenon of particles of different sizes produced by the decomposition of the interaction between "heat energy" and "entity", and the positive and negative charges of these particles are only the phenomena of positive and negative charges of these particles when the "heat energy" contained in these "entity" particles of different sizes is unbalanced. That is to say, negative electrons are the negative charge characteristics when the "heat energy" in the "entity" of small particles is lacking, while the so-called positron is just the positive charge characteristics when the "heat energy" in the "entity" of small particles is excess. The positive proton is the positive charge characteristic when the "heat energy" in the larger particle "entity" is excess, while the so-called negative proton is the negative charge characteristic when the "heat energy" in the larger particle "entity" is lack, not the phenomenon of antimatter. In this theoretical sense, it is not necessary for us to search for antimatter at present. The understanding of antimatter is only a problem in our understanding of the essence of charge. We blindly seek the existence of antimatter without knowing the cause of the positive and negative charges of particles. Therefore, this paper thinks that any work of looking for antimatter will be meaningless!

In a word, according to the above new understanding that the effect of "heat energy" on "entity" can decompose the size of "entity" particles, and according to the new understanding of the nature of positive and negative charges in the article "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century", that is, when the "heat energy" of "entity" particles is excessive, they show positive charge characteristics, and when the "entity" particles are lack of heat energy, they show negative charge characteristics Therefore, the so-called antimatter such as positrons and negative protons is just a phenomenon with positive and negative charges when the combination state of "entity" particles of different sizes and "heat" is unbalanced. Therefore, there is no antimatter in the material world, and all the work of searching for antimatter will be meaningless!

6. New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century: new understanding of current important physical viewpoints

6.1. New understanding of the fifth physical state of "state of matter light"

According to the law of conservation of matter, the light state of matter is the fifth physical state of matter.   As we all know, the four physical states of the material world: solid state, liquid state, gas state and plasma state can be called the four condensed states of matter. In modern physics research, the existence of particles in light state has been fully affirmed. From the point of view that matter can neither be created nor lost, a large number of facts about the quality of transferred condensed matter have been recognized,   Such as plasma glow torch, fission and fusion reaction, radiation of various cosmic rays, Radiation of radioactive substances and combustion of various substances , we can realize that these light States, including invisible light, have the phenomenon of radiating and transferring condensed matter elements in the form of light state. According to the law of conservation of matter, In this way,   It is necessary to clarify whether the phenomenon of condensed matter mass transforming into "the state of matter light" is a state of existence in matter physics.

When all kinds of material elements change into gaseous state, gases can be made into plasma by three kinds of ionization methods (thermal ionization, photoionization and collisional ionization). From the fact of plasma research, there are different critical temperature points when heating all kinds of elemental gases to form plasma by thermal ionization. When heating to more than 20000 K, almost all gases are highly ionized, which is the reason It is a common feature that all material elements form plasma at high temperature.

As we all know, plasma is a state of condensed matter in which electrons and ions are separated. This state is limited by the conditions that can not form a full emission, such as the container conditions, and the effect of the earth's gravity on the plasma existing in the atmospheric space, so that the plasma existing in the atmospheric space can not form a full emission into the cosmic space. This kind of plasma is exactly the confined plasma state, which is the fourth state of condensed plasma matter. But in space, rocket propellant combustion propagates to space in the form of matter light. When the condition of plasma confinement is released, the phenomenon of plasma radiating matter occurs. This state can not be called constrained plasma state.   It can be seen that plasma confinement state and plasma non confinement state are two states of matter agglutination state and non condensation state, "Matter light state" refers to the fifth physical state in which electromagnetic heat energy carries "light matter" to synchronously emit and operate in the form of electromagnetic radiationIt should not be attributed to plasma state. This kind of "matter light state" is not a phenomenon that "entity" is transformed into "energy", but a physical state in the form of "matter light", which is the fifth physical state of matter higher than the fourth physical state of confinement plasma. The range of this kind of material light state is from the disintegration of condensed matter to the formation of material light state accompanied by the total emission of electromagnetic radiation until the material light state stops moving.

In a word, solar ray, combustion glow, fission fusion glow, radioactive material ray, all kinds of cosmic rays, all electromagnetic radiation with "entity" existence is the matter light state, and the matter that runs together in electromagnetic radiation is "light matter", which is the fifth physical state of matter existence, and "matter light state" is also the limit state of physical state. The pure electromagnetic radiation without material "entity" can not be called "material light state" physical state. Most of the pure electromagnetic radiation is cold light source. For example, the fluorescence emitted by fireflies is pure electromagnetic radiation without "light state entity", which can not be called the state of matter light. Another example is the state of 1 ton of material light emitted by 1 ton of rocket propellant burning in space.   This "material light state" is the fifth kind of material state in which "entity" exists in the form of light state. In a word, there is electromagnetic radiation light with mass characteristics of matter. This "matter light state" is the fifth matter state of matter, which can also be called the fifth physical state of matter. The light without "light state matter" is just pure electromagnetic radiation light. There is no "entity" in this light. Therefore, this kind of pure electromagnetic radiation light is not "the state of matter light", it is not the fifth physical state of matter.   In this paper, we think that the current research of quantum mechanics is actually the research of the physical state of the fifth material state "material light state".

6.2. Stars are not made of hydrogen and helium, nor are they nuclear reactions

New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century [1] holds that the formation of liquid or gaseous phase transition of stars is not caused by nuclear reaction, but by the gravitational effect of massive stars, which condenses "heat" from outer space to the center, heating the stars into liquid or gas, which is also the cause of high temperature phase transition effect in the earth's core.   The light state of matter is the physical state that a star needs to reach when it disintegrates in space.   When a star heats its material to a temperature higher than the critical temperature of "material light state", it will explode in space, which is the reason of supernova explosion. After the explosion, the stellar material will spread to the space in the form of "material light state". "Black hole entity star" can be called the ultimate fire extinguisher to stop the chain reaction in space after supernova explosion.   The existence of the "black hole entity star" in the universe makes the balance and harmony among the galaxies and stars appear in our whole universe [6-7]!

This paper holds that stars, like our earth, are made up of many elements. Our present theory holds that all stars are nuclear reactions and are made up of hydrogen and helium. This is a wrong epistemology. The real reason is that because of the huge mass of stars, heat energy condenses centripetally from outer space, and gravitational effect heats the stars into liquid or gas state, which makes them become liquid or gas stars. The reason for the theory that all stars are composed of hydrogen and helium is the misjudgment of stellar spectrum. As we all know, every element has characteristic spectral lines. Because hydrogen and helium are the first and second elements in the front of the periodic table of elements, when various element phases become "material state light", the critical temperature point of hydrogen and helium phase transition to "material state light" is the lowest, so the characteristic spectral lines are also the strongest When we analyze the composition of stellar elements, we can get that stars are composed of hydrogen and helium according to the spectral analysis of hydrogen and helium. For this kind of wrong judgment, I use a popular analogy to make you understand: according to the above understanding of the "state of matter light", according to the order of the periodic table of elements from front to back, the critical temperature point of the glow of each element when it changes to the "state of matter light" increases in turn, because the critical temperature point of the glow of hydrogen and helium when it changes to the "state of matter light" is the lowest, because When a star composed of 99% iron and 1% hydrogen and helium heats itself to 1000 degrees, iron: melting point is 1538 ℃, because 99% iron in the star is still in a solid state, iron does not emit the spectrum of "material light", while the star composed of only 1% hydrogen and helium has already released strong starlight with hydrogen and helium Spectrum. At this time, when we use the spectrum of the star to analyze the element composition of the star, we will get the wrong judgment that the star is composed of 100% hydrogen and helium. The star, which is really composed of 99% iron, is still in a solid state when it is heated to 1000 degrees, so there is no "material light state" star spectrum of iron, which leads to our misunderstanding that the star is composed of hydrogen and helium according to the star spectrum analysis.

In a word, the new theoretical system holds that all stars are composed of multiple elements, not just hydrogen and helium, just like our earth. The reason why we observe the spectrum of stars shows that all stars are composed of hydrogen and helium is that according to the understanding of "the state of matter light" in this paper, all matter elements can become "the state of matter light" under certain temperature conditions Because hydrogen and helium are arranged in the first and second places of the periodic table, the critical temperature point of hydrogen and helium when it becomes "the state of matter light" is the lowest, so that the strongest spectrum of all stars is hydrogen and helium spectrum, which leads us to mistake stars for hydrogen and helium. The liquid or gaseous structure of a star is not a nuclear reaction ,Because of its huge mass, it absorbs more heat energy from outer space and heats itself into liquid or gas state, making stars into liquid or gas stars[1]. Note: see [1] for the causes of high temperature heat energy of heavy elements.

7. The summary and deduction of new ideas in the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century

At present, the understanding of the composition of the material world is that the material world is composed of particles, and the difference of different superposition numbers of particles in atoms constitutes various material elements of the material world, such as hydrogen,There is only one proton in the nucleus and only one electron outside the nucleus, The other elements are just the difference in the number of electrons and protons, According to the current theoretical understanding: as long as we can master the technology of injecting different numbers of protons into the nucleus and different numbers of electrons outside the nucleus, all the material elements in the world can be produced. Under this theoretical framework: all material elements are only different in the number of particles, and this theory is, in the final analysis, a constitution theory of things. This method of understanding the material world on the basis of particles can not reveal the causes of the formation of particles and atomic structure in the material world. The material world is composed of two basic types of "heat energy" and "entity", which will be able to reveal the reasons for the formation of particles and atomic structure in the material world[7]. According to the viewpoint that each element represents different "entity", the theory of single constitution of material world is avoided. For the epistemology that each element represents a different "entity", see the second part of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century: the new basic epistemology of the material world [1].

The "material world" we now realize is the "material world" composed of the basic unit "atom". Therefore, since the new theoretical system puts forward the combination of "entity" and "heat energy" to form the material world, it is necessary to answer the question of how "entity" and "heat energy" interact to produce the basic unit "atom" of the material world. For the answer to the important question of how to produce "atom", the basic unit of "material world", see the "dynamic atomic model of particle charge" in the second part of the article "new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century"[1]. This "dynamic atomic model of particle charge" describes the formation process of "atom" produced by the interaction between "entity" and "heat energy", which reveals It shows the real reason for the interaction between "entity" and "heat energy" to produce "atom". This new "particle charge dynamic atomic model" answers the reason why the basic unit "atom" of "material world" is produced and formed. According to the new viewpoint of "dynamic atomic model of particle charge", the atomic structure of various material elements should be expressed in terms of the frequency of electrons overflowing from the nucleus and the number of electron groups, rather than in terms of the number of several protons and electrons. The introduction of the new expression is detailed in new horizons of physics research in the 21st century [7].

According to the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, the material world is composed of two basic types of material property "entity" and material property "heat energy": "material property" refers to the component of material, and the single existence of "material property" can not be called material. Material is the product of the combination of "entity" and "heat energy", and all "materials" contain heat energy, without "heat energy" ”The existing "single entity" can not be called "matter". The "single entity" in black hole is a physical "entity state" without atomic structure, which is called "black hole entity star" in this paper. The "heat energy" of 3K cosmic temperature distributed in space is the "single heat energy" existing independently in space. The independent 3K "heat energy" in space is the damping resistance of starlight propagation in space, which is the reason for the attenuation of starlight propagation in long distance.   When the state of combination of "heat energy" and "entity" is unbalanced, matter appears to have different positive and negative charges. When the combination of "heat energy" and "entity" increases with the gradual increase of thermal energy, the degree of particle micromation of "entity" will be increased continuously, so that the degree of particle micromation can be infinitely small, thus changing the physical state of the substance to change phase transition, and its order is: entity state, solid state, liquid, gas state, plasma   state,   "The light state of matter" ,   When the "The light state of matter" enters the "single entity", it can make the "entity state" phase change into "solid state", and then enter the next cycle of the physical state of matter [7]. The above: (1) entity state(2)   Solid state(3)   Liquid state(4) Gas state(5) Plasma state(6) “The light state of matter”.The corresponding relationship between the "six physical states" and "stars" is shown in Chart 1.

Chart 1. The corresponding relationship between six physical states and "Star"

(1) Entity

state

Entity+Heat energy =Matter

black hole entity Star

(black hole)

(2) Solid

state

(3) Liquid

state

(4) Gaseous   state

(5) Plasma   state

(6) “The light

state of matter”

Matter star

Supernova explosion

This paper holds that the attempt to reveal the mystery of the constitution of the material world by searching for the smallest unit particle of the material world is a set of methods for understanding the constitution of the material world developed along the principle of phenomenology, which is a mistake of methodology and direction. In the future, with the continuous improvement of human technology to enhance high voltage and strong thermal energy, the trend of thermal energy decomposition into particles will never end, not only the mesons, hadrons, gluons, STRATONS, leptons and more than 100 kinds of strange particles that we now know. We will find more tiny particles. We will never find the smallest particle in the material world. Therefore, this paper holds that all efforts to explore the smallest particles in the material world will be futile. If we continue to use these particles with different masses, adopt the idea of defining fixed patterns, and explain many particles with various methods, such as "meson, hadron, gluon, STRATON, lepton", and countless "n-son" and "x-son" to be named in the future, which are used to explain various particles in the nucleus, it will inevitably lead to the recognition of many particles in the nucleus structure It's a mess.   According to the new theoretical viewpoint of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, according to the law that the size of "heat energy" is inversely proportional to the size of particles produced by decomposing "entity", and the new understanding of the causes of positive and negative charges, we will have a simple and clear understanding of more than 100 kinds of strange particles of different sizes and their charges [7]. Human beings will never be at a loss for a large number of strange particles any more!

To sum up, the new theory is based on the fact that there are two kinds of "entities" and "heat energy" with different physical properties in the material world.   It is a new understanding of the material world from the perspective of the interaction between two different basic types of "material properties".   This new epistemology can reveal the causes of the formation of particles, the formation of atomic structure and the gravitational force of matter, and the repulsive force of matter. In the new theoretical system, the new understanding of the existence of multi element "entities" in the periodic table of elements is the theory of multi entity constitution of matter. It is not a simple element constitution theory of superposition of the number of particles. The understanding of elements in the new theoretical system is that the physical and chemical properties of uranium protons cannot be changed even if they are put into iron atoms! The solid particles of each element have their own physical and chemical properties. Under this theoretical framework, the particles in the atoms of various elements are composed of "entity" particles with different physical and chemical properties. Under this theoretical framework, "entity in matter" stands for "mass of matter" and "heat energy in matter" stands for "energy of matter".

8. A new epistemology of the universe and the Galactic system

8.1. reasons for the existence of supermassive black holes in the universe

According to the above understanding that "the state of matter light" is the physical state of the big bang of stars, because black holes are composed of "single entity". Although it is not the "solid" atomic physical state of matter, it is a more stable physical state than the "solid" atomic physical state. This physical state can not directly form the "material light state", and there will not be the problem of big bang disintegration caused by the stellar phase becoming the "material light state". Therefore, the mass of the "black hole entity star" can be infinitely increased, so that it can be in the cosmic space .This is the reason for the existence of supermaximal "black holes" in the universe, that is, the existence of supermaximal "black hole entity Star" phenomenon in the universe.

8.2. the reason why the galaxy "black hole entity star" has strong cohesive gravity

At the center of the Galactic architecture is a supermassive "black hole entity star". According to the new theoretical system, matter is the product of the combination of "entity" and "heat energy". "Entity" and "heat energy" have the characteristics of combination. Therefore, the "black hole entity star" composed of "single entity" has a strong "thermal energy" absorption characteristics. Because the composition of "matter stars" contains heat energy, the super large "black hole entity star" located in the center of the galaxy absorbs the heat energy of the super large system space of the universe, thus forming a centripetal condensation gravitational effect on all “matter stars”   celestial bodies in the galaxy. Therefore, the galaxy relies on the "black hole entity star" to condense all matter stars and celestial bodies into an independent galactic system structure.

8.3. Formation mechanism of "black hole single entity star" phase transition into matter state

Black hole is a "single entity star". Although this "single entity physical state" can not directly form the "state of matter light" and cause the big bang problem, because the "black hole entity star" has the characteristics of absorbing heat energy, it will cause the "black hole entity star" outer surface to change to the "solid" physical state due to the continuous increase of "heat energy", which makes the "black hole entity star" There are many states of matter on the surface of black hole. In this way, when the amount of material continuously generated on the outer surface of the "single entity" black hole is large, the material body will be separated from the surface of the "single entity" black hole (the specific reason for the separation of the material body will be discussed later), and according to the escape mass, different mass objects will be produced: stars, planets, asteroids, comets and other known celestial bodies. With the increase of the number of "stars" and other celestial bodies escaping from the "black hole entity star", the Galactic celestial structure around the "black hole entity star" is formed. In fact, "black hole entity star" is a process of continuously heating its own "entity" to form galactic matter by absorbing the heat energy of the super system space of the universe, until the "black hole entity star" gradually shrinks and disappears, that is, when most of the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy becomes the physical state of atomic matter, and is separated from the "black hole entity star" After that, the gravity of the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy will gradually decline until it disappears, leading to the disintegration of the galaxy. After the disintegration, all the “material star” in the galaxy will spread to the larger space of the universe, resulting in material turbulence in this space-time.

8.4. The mechanism of "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy releasing “star" containing thermal energy

For the above point of view, some people will question, since the "black hole entity star" huge endothermic gravity, How can it send out "starstar"? This paper argues that if the black hole "single entity" only has a strong endothermic gravity, then all stars in the galaxy, including our earth, have long been swallowed up by the "black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy. Therefore, I think that while the black hole absorbs heat to form a strong gravity, it also has a mechanism to release heat. Atomic stars (stars, planets) rely on the release of electromagnetic heat energy through protons, thus forming the balance mechanism of stars (planets) in and out of heat energy [1]. The black hole is composed of "single entity" and has no proton, so it can't release heat energy through proton releasing electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, this paper holds that the release of heat energy from the "black hole entity star" is accomplished by releasing the   "matter star"   containing heat energy. Thus, all kinds of   "matter star"   containing heat energy are released from the outer surface of the "black hole entity star", which makes the "black hole entity star" keep the balance of heat energy entering and releasing.

8.5. Each spiral arm of the galaxy is formed by "black hole entity star" continuously releasing all kinds of "Star" along this path

Because   "black hole entity star" is composed of "single entity", it has a strong ability to absorb heat. When a large amount of heat energy enters the "single entity" of the   "black hole entity star", the "matter" with atomic structural force will appear on the outer surface, which will revive the outer surface of the   "black hole entity star" into solid matter. With the increase of heat energy collection, a large number of materials will appear on the outer surface. Because the   "black hole entity star" is a "single entity" without kinetic energy, when a large number of matter bodies with kinetic energy and heat energy appear on the outer surface, due to the "interaction law of gravitational and repulsive forces between matter bodies", there will be a strong repulsive force between larger matter bodies. For example, when the repulsive force between the mass of a star and the material on the surface of the   "black hole entity star" occurs, the   "black hole entity star" will repel the "Star" from the outer surface of the "black hole entity star", so that the "Star" will become a new star of the birth of the   "black hole ". The "entity mass" escaping from the outer surface of the "black hole entity star" is related to the amount of "matter" produced by the heat energy absorbed by the "black hole entity star" from the universe. Therefore, according to the size of escape mass, "black hole entity star" give birth to the phenomenon of stars, planets, asteroids, comets and All kinds of "matter star" phenomenon.   Because there are many new born "star" near the "black hole entity star", the density of "star" in the center of the galaxy is very high.

Every body of matter that has just separated from the surface of the "black hole entity star" is a new star. Due to the existence of the "law of gravitational repulsion balance distance" among the born stars, one star pushes another star, and each star leads its own star group to leave the   "black hole entity star",   one after another, continuously and vastly, which forms the effect of the giant galactic spiral arm belt. The four giant spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy (see Chart 2) are the paths of stars separated from the surface of the "black hole entity" in sequence, one following the other. That is to say, the spiral arm band is in the order of launching from the parent star. One star pushes another star, so the effect of the giant spiral arm band is formed. The "stars" on the spiral arm band follow the law of gravitational repulsion balance spacing, and revolve around the "black hole entity star"! Thus, a spectacular spiral arm structure of the Milky Way galaxy is formed.

Chart 2. Four giant spiral arms of the Milky way Sketch Map

457247dc57cb53884ec640c1eb3cc4f.jpg

In this theoretical framework, the composition of the "Star" elements at the end of the spiral arm band of the galaxy is the composition of the "entity" elements in the outermost layer at the initial state of the   "black hole entity star". The stars near the origin of the   "black hole entity star" in the Milky way are the newly born stars of the   "black hole entity star", while the stars near the edge of the Milky way are the ancient stars that emerged earlier from the   "black hole entity star". Assuming that this view is on the orbit of natural science truth, then the solar star at the end of a spiral arm and on the edge of the galaxy is an ancient star born in the early stage of the galactic center. All the satellites of the solar system were separated from the   "black hole entity " with the sun at about the same time.

8.6. The formation mechanism and destination of the Milky way

The formation mechanism of the Milky Way Galaxy: the initial state of the Milky Way galaxy is just a "black hole entity star" without satellite super mass. This massive "black hole entity star" gradually absorbs heat energy from cosmic space, transforms "black hole single entity" into "matter" through continuous heating phase, gradually reduces "black hole single entity" and transforms "black hole entity" into matter, forming a matter state "Star" ball around the silver nucleus, thus generating the Galactic galaxy system structure.

The final destination of the Galaxy: through the "black hole entity star" continuously absorbing heat energy, continuously releasing matter stars along the spiral arm path, finally forming the spiral arm structure of the galaxy. Therefore, the Milky way is the expansion process after the "black hole entity star" in the center of the Milky way transforms into a material star. All stars and celestial bodies in the galaxy are separated from the surface of the black hole entity. This process is that the "black hole entity star" absorbs heat energy from outer space and generates matter on the outer surface of the "black hole entity star". The more heat energy the "black hole entity star" absorbs, the faster the "entity" on the outer surface of the "black hole entity star" is separated to form matter, until the "black hole entity star" continuously absorbs heat energy in outer space, and finally the "single entity" is separated ”All of them are transformed into "material state". At this time, the galaxy's condensed gravity drops, and the galaxy will disintegrate. After the disintegration, all the material stars and celestial bodies in the galaxy will spread to the universe, resulting in material turbulence in this space-time. This is the end result of the galaxy.

In a word, the formation mechanism of galaxies is the evolution process of supermassive "black hole entity star" absorbing cosmic thermal energy through "single entity state" to form "matter star" system.   The total mass of the "black hole entity star" in its initial state is equal to the sum of the total mass of all the celestial bodies after the material galaxy has been completely formed. The formation mechanism of galaxy is the process of "single entity state" changing into "matter state".

8.7. The conjecture that the visible universe is composed of every "material space-time unit" of the universe

From the above point of view, the smaller the"black hole entity star" in the center of the galaxy, the easier the galaxy is to disintegrate. When there is a large"black hole entity stars" in the center of a galaxy, it is a stable galaxy, or the initial state of galaxy formation. Maybe there are countless invisible"black hole entity stars" in our universe. This paper holds that"heat energy" is"energy","single heat energy" is called"positive energy state" and"single entity" is called"negative energy state". The huge"black hole entity stars" are all"single entity" negative energy states that plunder"heat energy", so the"black hole entity stars" have the characteristics of plundering "heat energy" each other, which results in the mutual avoidance effect of repulsive force between"black hole entity stars", which is equivalent to the repulsive effect between negative charges[1]. It is precisely because of the repulsive force between the giant"black hole entity stars" in the universe that the"black hole entity stars" divide the space of"entity" in the universe! Each"black hole entity star" represents an independent unit dividing the"entity" space of the universe, which can be called"cosmic entity space-time unit"The universe is made up of independent units of this kind of"entity" space. Because"black hole entity star" can evolve into matter star system, the future of"cosmic entity space-time unit" can also be called"cosmic matter space-time unit". Therefore, the universe can also be said to be composed of every"space-time unit of cosmic matter".   This is the new understanding of this paper, the conjecture that the visible universe is composed of every"material space-time unit" of the universe.

In a word, the "space-time units of cosmic entities" formed by each "black hole entity star" be "cosmic units", and the universe is composed of such countless "space-time units of cosmic entities". Because "black hole entity star" is a "single entity" with no heat and negative energy state of "no light", how many invisible initial "black hole entity star" exist in the universe? Because we can't observe the number of "cosmic entity space-time units", we can't observe the size of the universe through visibility.   In the invisible universe, the number of "black hole entity stars" in the initial state of "cosmic entity space-time unit" will be an eternal mystery of materialism,   We can only say that we can observe the "cosmic material space-time unit",   This is a universe that has evolved into a visible "matter star" systemThe "space-time unit of cosmic matter" is the size of the universe we can see.   This is the new understanding of this paper, the conjecture that the visible universe is composed of every "material space-time unit" of the universe.

9. Conclusion

Although this paper can't answer how the "entity" and "heat energy" are produced, or how much "heat energy" and "entity" there are in the universe, or how big our universe is. But it's a step further than understanding the physical world from the point of view of particles.   This "new theoretical system" is based on the "material properties" of two different basic types of "entity" and "heat energy" in the material world. It is an in-depth understanding of the material world from the perspective of the interaction between the two basic types of "material properties". This new epistemology can reveal the reasons for the formation of particles The reason for the formation of atomic structure and the reason for the formation of gravitation and repulsion of matter. It will be able to reveal more scientific problems that are difficult to explain by current theories [1] [7].

This paper is a summary and deduction of the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. It is a new epistemology about the formation of galactic structure and the components of the universe. For more new ideas about the new theoretical system of physics in the 21st century, please refer to literature [1-3,6-7].

References

[1] Jiang Hua Zhou. New theoretical system of physics in the 21st century. 2020 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1634 012103. IOP Publishing.DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1634/1/012103      

[2] Jiang Hua Zhou.   Reveal the cause of the formation of gravity. The sixth Chinese Symposium on new photoelectric detection technology and its application. Beijing. December 3-5,   2019.   © (2020) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).DOI:       https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2564978

[3] Jiang Hua Zhou. Revolution in basic research of Physics Will usher in a new era in the study of interstellar space vehicles. London(ICIEI 2020): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Education Innovations July 2020 .Pages,P:89–95. Publisher: Association for Computing MachineryNew YorkNYUnited States.DOI:    https://doi.org/10.1145/3411681.3411687   

[4] Edited by Shen Xianjia, Zhang Xixin and Qi Youlong. A brief history of physics. Shandong Education Association of China. 1985.   

[5] Translated by song Yusheng, Li Xinzhang, Hui exing and Wang Kangmao. Lectures by Nobel laureates, physics (Volume I). China Science Press, 1985.

[6] Jiang Hua Zhou. Is the existence of matter light state the fifth physical state?Potential science. 1990 (5): 7-13.    

[7] Jiang Hua Zhou. a new vision of physics research in the 21st century. Jilin, China: Science and Technology Press, 2005: 1-241.