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国际发表《揭示地球引力形成的原因》



美国发表的网址DOI:


https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2564978


点击上面链接进入美国网站,打开的较慢,多等会就能打开

揭示地球引力形成的原因


周江华

(中国河北省秦皇岛市海碧台2—3—2403信箱,秦皇岛066000



要:作者研究发现物质摩擦产生同性电荷”实验新现象,对于这种重大实验新发现,作者提出了不同于“电子得失理论”来解释产生“正负电荷”的新观点,并用新观点解释了这种新的实验现象。继而通过对“物质“实体“热能新认识的观点原子模型有了的思考,得到了新的“粒子电荷动态原子模型”。根据“粒子电荷动态原子模型”的新认识,阐述了“实体”与“热能”的关系是物质间存在引力和斥力的根源。提出了物质(原子、星球)间存在力和斥力平衡间距规律,揭示了地球引力以及宇宙中诸多引斥力现象产生的原因。


关键词:物质;实体;热能;引力;斥力




0   引   言


本文是继专著《21世纪物理学研究新视野》【1】(见图1)和“物质世界自然科学真理的揭示”论文【2】发表后作者对物理学研究最新进展的概述!


当今我们对正负电荷固定模式的思想认识和电子得失理论,源于1902年获得诺贝尔物理学奖荷兰物理学家洛伦兹HendrikAntoonLorentz对埃德隆E.Edlund(瑞典科学院物理学家)提出“电荷本质动态思想认识”彻底否定得出的结果【3】。由于埃德隆教授那时没有发现同一物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验现象,因此埃德隆的思想被当时获诺贝尔奖的权威彻底否定,导至埃德隆对电荷本质动态思想的认识被人们放弃了近一个世纪。


统治我们思想电子得失理论质疑:摩擦起电现象的产生被认为是摩擦过程中一种物质失去部分核外电子,另一种物质得到这些电子,看似说的有道理,仔细想想很难自圆其说


首先,原子极其微小,200万个原子叠加的高度大约与普通一本书的一页纸厚度相当。任何微力的摩擦都不可能只将一个超小原子的核外电子摩擦掉,而原子核却还安然无恙的在一个摩擦起电的物体上在摩擦起电实验中,越快速用力摩擦产生的静电越强,这会造成成千上万的原子脱落,因为原子实在是太微小了一个原子的直径大约有百万分之一毫米,不可能只引起比原子核更加微小的核外电子脱落,因此,摩擦起电因电子得失而起电的理论经不起认真的推敲


,在以往的实验中,我们只注重不同物质之间摩擦产生异性电荷现象,并没有注意到同一物质之间的摩擦产生同性电荷现象(注:“相同物质”等于“同一物质”的概念),原因是电子得失理论束缚了我们的思想,把我们引导到了一个错误的方向上。我们始终都在做不同物质之间的摩擦起电实验,而舍弃同物质间的摩擦实验。使同一物质摩擦产生同性电荷这种极其容易发现的事实始终没有被人们认识。同一物质之间相互摩擦产生同性电荷的起电现象不是在特殊环境下发生,也不是单单某一种特殊物质发生的特别现象,而是同一物质(指摩擦起电的物质)普遍存在的客观规律。而恰恰是这一事实违背了电子得失理论。


最后,综上所述:错误的理论必然把科学引向歧途,利于新科学的发现与发展。因此,今天我们应重新审视电子得失理论的适用性,寻求新的理论。为此,根据本人自1991年所发现的同一物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验事实【4-5】,实事求是的探讨和寻求解释全部静电效应的新理论,给人类物理学研究开拓了新的研究视野。


今天重新提出正负电荷可以相互转化思想的科学意义,在于我们发现了同一物质间摩擦不但能够起电,而且只产生同性电荷的实验事实【4-5】,对于这种实验结果用电子得失理论难以解释,这种实验事实将成为电子得失理论难以自圆其说的诘难。沿着物理学家埃德隆对“电荷本质动态思想认识”的深入研究,惊奇的发现不但能够解释同一物质摩擦产生同性电荷的现象,而且能够揭示现理论解释不了的很多物理难题,找到了牛顿发现万有引力现象本质原因认识的突破口,下面阐述我对万有引力本质认识的新观点。


1   颠覆性新认识


1.1   “正负电荷”的新认识:


在人类物理学历史长河中对于静电的研究,人们只是在做着不同物质间的摩擦起电实验,从未亲手测试研究同物质摩擦是否起电,但只要我们动手实验就能够发现同物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验现象5。例如:两分别一条丝绸布的两端(两条丝绸布110厘米,令其丝绸布的中间部位相互摩擦,摩擦后经静电检测仪对两丝绸布摩擦面电荷检测,就会发现丝绸布摩擦面只带相同的负电荷性(注意:把一块新丝绸裁成两块,以保证同一丝绸是非常重要的。在每次实验中,丝布需要相互摩擦35分钟,直到丝布的摩擦表面表现发热现象。而每次实验都需要等待几分钟,等到实验材料表面恢复到零电位后,可以重新进行实验。连续试验效果不明显)。对于这种同物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验事实,用电子得失理论难以解释,成为电子得失理论难以自圆其说的诘难。


对于同物质摩擦产生同性电荷的实验事实,用当前的电子得失理论难以解释,因此作者提出了新的解释途径,新的观点为:物质带正电荷是物质实体中热能过剩时表现的带正电荷现象,物质带负电荷是物质实体中热能缺乏时表现的带负电荷现象中性电荷是物质实体中热能饱和时表现的中性电荷现象。此观点的提出是对埃德隆认为正负电荷能够相互转化动态思想认识的发展。


这种新观点对同物质摩擦产生同性电荷的解释是:因为物质是由热能和实体结合而成,同物质摩擦由于破坏物质表面结构,造成热能的溢出,散发热能后物质表面上的实体就成为缺乏热能的状态,因此物质表面就表现为带有负电荷性,从而就出现了同物质摩擦产生同性负电荷的实验现象。


1.2   “物质、热能、实体”的新认识


“物质”的认识:物质是由“实体”和“热能”构成,两者具有结合的特性,其结合才能出现原子力的结构,从而合成物质。


“热能”的认识:“热能”的浓度用温度表示,热量温度越高表明“热能”浓度越大,宇宙真空中存在着3K温度热能量,自然界客观存在着热能


热能具有两种传播特性:一种是高压热能量在低压热能量中传播时遵循“电压特性方式”传播,即:电、电磁辐射方式光速传播,这是高压强能的传播特性。另一种是当低压热能量在高压热能量中传播时遵循热能量依“浓度扩散方式”缓慢传播,不遵循光速“电压特性方式”传播


“实体”的认识:每种元素代表着不同的实体。各元素作为不同的实体与热能结合具有不同的“饱和热能量”,不同的“饱和热能量”对应产生不同的“饱和电压值”,各种物质元素实体自身携带的这种“饱和热能量固定电压值”称为各种物质元素实体“标志电压能量”。即在每种元素的“中子”内都存在着代表实体自身特征的“标志电压能量”“标志电压能量”的特各元素实体在发射热能时存在一个固定发射电压值,“标志电压能量”决定着各元素实体“发射电磁场”中电磁辐射的电压强度。


元素周期表的认识:元素周期表的建立,我认为就是利用强X射线照射各种元素启动了隐含在每种元素“中子”内的各自“标志电压能量”,各元素实体“标志电压能量”启动后,在传播中受“地球发射电压能量【1-2”的阻尼拖曳作用就形成了不同的波长规律,从而就出现了每种元素都存在着自身的次X射线现象即标志伦琴辐射现象各元素存在着“标志电压能量”就是各元素存在标志伦琴辐射(又称次X射线)的本质原因。我们根据每种元素存在次X射线的不同波长规律而建立了元素周期表。元素周期表的建立证明了物质世界存在着各种不同的实体。   


1.3   “粒子电荷动态原子模型”的新认识:


根据物质是由实体和热能构成和两者具有结合特性的观点,当粒子实体中热能缺乏时粒子呈现负电荷性(如:电子),当粒子实体中热能饱和时粒子呈现电荷中性(如:中子),当粒子实体中热能过剩时粒子呈现正电荷性(如:质子)。此观点是对物理学家埃德隆正负电荷能够相互转化动态思想认识的发展。


“原子中粒子正负电荷变化动态原子模型”(简称:“粒子电荷动态原子模型”)是:缺乏热能的负电荷性电子在原子核外吸收着热能,随着电子实体内含的热能增加电子自身的负电荷性减弱,电子在围绕原子核转动的同时(关于电子围绕原子核转动的形成原因和具有矢量性的原因,见参考文献【1,负电性减弱的大量电子由于热能的增加受原子核内实体吸引的作用,向着原子核近区迁移并汇集合成较大的粒子。当这些大粒子热能饱和时就进入到原子核外壳区演变成为中性电荷中子,热能与实体中子继续结合,中子热能过剩时就演变成为正电荷质子而进入到原子核内。当质子与热能不断结合产生的电压大于原子外约束电压后(原子外约束电压值是指星球向外太空发射电压值,见参考文献【1-2】),中热能将遵循“电压特性方式”光速向原子外发射电磁辐射。质子释放出热能后,大粒子实体由于摄取热能的需求而向原子核外迁移分解,这种自然分解效应是实体有利于对热能的吸收而发生的现象。从而形成质子失去热能后向原子核外分解喷注微粒子的现象,这些喷注到原子核外的微粒子再次成为核外电子,这些实体粒子周而复始的发生着动态迁移效应这种实体粒子在动态迁移过程中,质子在没有发射电磁辐射之前蓄储热能时,出现的粒子滞留效应就形成了原子核。上述观点就是我提出的关于正负电荷相互转化动态理论框架下“粒子电荷动态原子模型”的新认识。目前电子显微镜下观察电子云中存在着点状显现效应,这就是电子从原子核向外喷注的显像,这种显像证了上述新理论的科学性。


从原子的整体看:在原子中,带负电荷的电子和带正电荷的质子之间构成静电引力及静电正负电荷的平衡,原子对外不显电性。原子只表现出吸收热能和释放热能的特性,吸收的热能是遵循浓度扩散原理缓慢进入到原子的低能量热能,而原子释放的热能是遵循电压特性以电磁辐射方式释放的高压强辐射热能。


2   万有引力和万有斥力本质原因的揭示


2.1   对万有引力和万有斥力的认识:


“粒子电荷动态原子模型”的新认识,帮助我们找到了物质都存在吸收“热能量”现象和释放电磁辐射现象的本质原因,发现了物质间存在万有引力和万有斥力的根源。


物质引力简单说:物质间的“吸热能力”就是物质间的“万有引力”。


物质斥力简单说:原子(各星球相互释放强辐射热能产生的“发射磁场”间发生的对抗作用力就形成了物质间的万有斥力。


在微观,原子间近距张力相斥的现象就是原子间彼此释放强辐射热能产生的“发射磁场”构成的斥力效应。


在宏观,星球不断吸收低“热能”和持续不断向外太空发射着强能,这样就造成星球永恒存在着强辐射热“发射磁场”。在两个相邻的星球间由于永恒存在着这种“发射磁场”的相互排斥作用力,就出现太阳的“发射磁场(阳光)无论将地球“发射磁场(不可见地光)的地磁层压缩的有多薄,也不能直接侵入地表的屏障效应。这种观点揭示了强太阳风不能直接侵入地表这一多年难解的自然之谜。


2.2   万有引力和万有斥力平衡间距规律的认识:


物质世界“万有引力”和“万有斥力”对立统一的存在:物质对“热能”的吸收与释放是物质间存在“引力和斥力”的根源所在,即两个物质体之间由物质“发射磁场的存在决定着近距离时相互排斥,而在远距离时由物质之间吸收热能的原因决定着物质间具有相互吸引的特性。


物质间发生“引力”和“斥力”时存在着引斥力平衡间距的规律:即相邻星球(原子)“发射磁场”产生的“斥力大小”与吸收“热能”产生的“引力大小”,通过星球(原子)间的距离自行调整,使星球(原子)间的斥力和引力达到平衡,从而产生了星球(原子)间力和斥力平衡间距规律。宇宙中一切物质(原子、星球)间都处在力和斥力平衡间距规律的自然规律中。


2.3   恒星、行星力和斥力平衡间距规律的认识:


由于恒星间释放发射的电磁能量较大,所以恒星间距较大。行星间释放发射的电磁能量相对较小,因此行星间距较小。恒星体作为巨大的“实体”表现为对“热能”的巨大需求,从而表现为恒星在宇宙超大体系空间中(如太阳系)摄取“热能”,以满足恒星对“热能”的强大需要。由于恒星与各行星质差很大,各行星被恒星吸热所形成的引力所控制,行星在遵循引斥力平衡间距规律的基础上成为恒星的卫星。由于各行星之间都存在着引斥力的依赖关系,从而使得恒星系中各行星都处在同一平面体系结构中,银河系各星球形成的平面体系结构也是这种相同的原理。


总之:宇宙中各星球“发射磁场”(斥力)强度和“吸收热能的能力”(引力),与星球之间距离相结合,在遵循星球间“引斥力平衡间距规律”的基础上,决定了各星球处在宇宙空间中动态平衡各个区位,从而就构成了整个宇宙中各个星球运行的平衡状态。


3   宇宙中诸多引力和斥力现象本质的揭示


3.1   揭示地球引力形成的原因:


地球是原子的集合体,以原子为单位的近距张力相斥现象,在微观原子间不易见,主要表现为相对微观体的远距相吸特性,从而出现了微观物质体的相对凝聚效应(如空中飘浮的云),这样就构成了整个宏观地球自身物质的凝聚效应。地球就是通过这种原子之间彼此摄取“热能”凝聚效应凝聚在宇宙空间中,成为独立的星球。并且遵循着从宇宙外空间摄取“热能”来补充地球中“实体”对“热能”的需求,这种从外太空中吸收低能量“热能”向地球核心凝聚“热能”的特性,就构成了地球自身一切物质向心凝聚引力效应,地球从外太空中吸收的低能量“热能”是指来自其它“恒星”和“行星”辐射到地球的“热能”,以及宇宙空间中存在的3K温度“热能”。


地球大气层就是被这种向心凝聚热能”引力所束缚而不向宇宙空间中散,因为地球大气物质以及地球上所有物质内含的“热能”远远高于宇宙空间中存在的3K温度“热能”。地球这种向心凝聚“热能”的向心凝聚引力效应,就构成了对地球上一切物质都形成了“向心凝聚引力”地球上一切物质包括:地核、地幔、地壳、地表上一切物质、大气层),同时出现了随着从外太空向地球核心凝聚“热能”浓度依次不断增强的规律,越向地球中心“热能”凝聚浓度就越大温度也越高。目前已知在地球上每向地心延深一公里温度升高1度,以至形成地球的核心物质出现高温液态相变效应。这种观点揭示了地球高温热核的自然之谜,星球这种从外太空向星球核心凝聚“热能”引力效应也是大质量恒星出现高温相变成液态或气态的本质原因。


球物质实体这种向心凝聚“热能”的引力效应,就构成了对球上一切物质产生引力的现象,这就是地球引力形成的原因。


3.2揭示地球自转的形成原因:


在太阳系内,虽然太阳与地球处在力和斥力平衡间距规律宇宙空间区位,但是在太阳与地球间仍存在着太阳对地球不同体位引斥力的不平衡性即:地球面对太阳一面吸收“热能量”由于大于地球背面所以正面释放电磁强度大于地球背面,地球正面对太阳的斥力就大于背面(斥力效应)。而地球面由于摄取太阳释放“热能”产生引力效应大于地球阳面(引力效应)。地球阴阳两面这种不同体位不平衡的引斥力效应,就构成了地球自转的源动力。地球就是通过这种自身转换体位效应实现了引斥力的动态平衡,这就是地球存在着永恒自转源动力的本质原因。


3.3   揭示彗星椭圆形运行轨迹和结构变化的形成原因:


人类已发现绕太阳运行的彗星有1600多颗,最著名的是哈雷彗星。对于彗星呈现椭圆形运行的特殊轨迹,本文认为是由于彗星体同太阳间引斥力变化的原因造成。彗星吸收和释放“热能量”虽然在平衡中进行,但从彗星围绕太阳整个运行轨迹来看,当彗星远离太阳在太空稀薄低“热能”含量区运行时(即距离太阳较远的太空区域中运行),彗星中“热能”含量少,由于万有引力规律的存在是依赖物质原子间彼此吸收“热能”原因形成,从而表现为低“热能”含量的彗星出现凝聚力减弱呈现松散结构和彗核变暗的效应,这时“热能”含量少的彗星朝向太阳具有“热能”辐射源特征的恒星运行,以得到“热能”的补充。当彗星运行到太阳近区时,从太阳释放的电磁辐射能量中获得大量“热能”的补充,彗星充入大量“热能”后,在太阳和彗星“发射磁场”间形成的相斥力作用下,发生了彗星被太阳斥离的现象,在惯性力的作用下与恒星往来运动中出现围绕恒星的椭圆形运行轨迹。充入“热能”之后的彗星“热能”含量较高,由于万有引力规律的存在是依赖物质原子间彼此摄取“热能”的原因形成,从而表现为高“热能”含量的彗星出现凝聚力增强,呈现彗体紧缩、彗核亮度增强的效应。这就是彗星椭圆形运行轨迹和松散紧缩结构变化的原因。


3.4   揭示黑洞引力形成的原因:


物质是由实体和热能结合而成,实体和热能具有结合的特性。一切物质都含有热能,


完全没有热能纯实体不能称为物质,因为纯实体没有热能的参与形成不了原子力的结构,纯实体就是宇宙黑洞中的“物质”,黑洞中的这种“物质”不能称为物质,它只是单一的实体,由于宇宙黑洞中单一实体对热能具有强烈的摄取吸收能力,因此作为星球发出的电磁辐射热能光就发生了被黑洞吞食的现象,这就是宇宙黑洞存在着吸光特性的本质原因。


后语:作者研究的“21世纪物理学研究新视野”新的理论体系【1】涉及物理学的诸多方面【6-12】,关于“地球发射磁场的认识”也有新的见解:提出了“地球发射电磁场的强度”与“地球元素构成”存在着对应的关系,找到了“地球大地磁场”和“小艾伦辐射区地磁场”形成的原因。详情请参见作者《21世纪物理学研究新视野》专著【1】和新近发表的论文“物质世界自然科学真理的揭示”【2】。更多信息,请访问网站: http://www.21ufo.com.


主要参考文献


1】周江华.21世纪物理学研究新视野.吉林,吉林科学技术出版社.20051-241.

2】周江华.物质世界自然科学真理的揭示.科学技术创新2018(32):137~143.

3诺贝尔奖获得者演讲集,物理学(第一卷).宋玉升、李新章、惠和兴、汪康懋.科学出版社,1985.

4】周江华.同种物质摩擦都产生同性负电荷的实验现象与解释.军械工程学院学报(中国物理学会第九届静电学术会议论文集).2000年,第12卷(增刊):295~298.

5】北京电视台报道《科技全方位》第1167集 (播出时间2005 5 12日,播出题目:我想拿个“诺贝尔”)周江华物理实验重大发现:相同物质间摩擦产生同性电荷实验

http://www.21ufo.com/h-nd-12.html#_np=2_307

6】周江华.物质光态是物质物理态的探讨.潜科学.1990(5)7~13.

7】周江华.以太本质及其电本质探讨.中国物理学会全国第六届电介质学术会议论文集西安199110月21-25日.

8】周江华.电与磁转换本质原因的探讨.中国物理学会全国第七届电介质学术会议论文集中国电工技术学会全国第三届工程电介质学术会议论文集上海19936月7-10日.

9】周江华物质世界由两种基本类型物性构成新理论.中国物理学会、中国光学会、中国晶体学会、中国化学会联合召开的“纪念伦琴发现X射线100周年会议论文集”暨第六届全国X射线分析学术会议论文集,天津,19959月1-3日.

10】周江华.月球磁极存在及鉴别方法的预言(附题:物质世界由两种基本类型物性构成新理论).静电1996.11(1):52~64.

11】周江华.21世纪物理学研究新视野》一书的启示.科技日报:2007年8月21日(1)连载2007年9月11日(2).

12】周江华.21世纪物理学研究新视野》一书的重大启示.科技创新导报200734169~172.



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英文国际发表版


Reveal the cause of the formation of gravity


Jiang Hua Zhou

Mailbox 2-3-2403, haibitai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China, code: 066000,


ABSTRACT

The new experimental phenomenon of "the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance" is found in the author's study. For this important new experimental discovery, the author puts forward a new viewpoint different from the "gain and loss theory of electron" to explain the "positive and negative charge" produced, and explains this new experimental phenomenon with a new viewpoint. Then through the new understanding of "matter", "Entity" and "heat energy", we have a new thinking of "atomic model", and get a new "particle charge dynamic atomic model". According to the new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model", it is expounded that the relationship between "substance" and "heat energy" is the root of the existence of attraction and repulsion between substances. This paper puts forward the law of the equilibrium distance of attraction and repulsion between matter (atoms, stars), and reveals the causes of the earth's attraction and many phenomena of attraction and repulsion in the universe.


Key words:Matter, Entity,Heat, Gravitation , Repulsion.


INTRODUCTION

This paper is an overview of the latest progress in physics research after the publication of new vision of physics research in the 21st century [1]! Today, our understanding of the fixed mode of positive and negative charges and the theory of electron gain and loss originate from Hendrik Anton Lorentz (Dutch physicist Lorentz), who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1902, who denied aidelong's understanding of the dynamic nature of charges [2]. At that time, edron didn't find the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance, so his thought was completely denied by the authority of Nobel Prize. His understanding of the dynamic nature of charge has been abandoned for nearly a century. Now, The scientific significance of reintroducing the idea that positive and negative charges can be transformed into each other today is that we have found the experimental fact that the friction between the same substances can not only generate electricity, but only generate the same-sex charge [3], It is difficult to explain the experimental results with the theory of electronic gain and loss, which will become an electron The theory of gain and loss is hard to justify.Along with aidelong's in-depth study of "the dynamic thought of charge essence",the surprising discovery can not only explain the phenomenon of the same-sex charge produced by friction of the same substance, but also reveal many physical problems that cannot be explained by the present theory. It has found the breakthrough of Newton's understanding of the nature of the phenomenon of universal gravitation. Here is my new view on the nature of universal gravitation:


I. SUBVERSIVE NEW UNDERSTANDING

1. New understanding of "positive and negative charges":

In the long history of human physics, people are only doing the experiment of friction and electrification between different substances. They never test and study whether the same substance friction is electrified. However, as long as we do experiments, we can find the experimental phenomenon that the same substance friction produces the same-sex charge. For example, two people each take two ends of a silk cloth (two silk cloth: 1 m long and 10 cm wide) to make the middle part of the silk cloth rub against each other. After friction, the electrostatic detector detects the charge on the friction surface of the two silk cloth, and it will be found that the friction surface of the silk cloth only has the same negative charge. (Note: it is very important to cut a new silk cloth into two to ensure the same silk cloth. In each experiment, the silk cloth needs to be rubbed with each other for 3 to 5 minutes until the heating phenomenon occurs on the friction surface of the silk cloth. And each experiment needs to wait for a few minutes, after the surface of the experimental material returns to zero potential, the experiment again, the continuous experiment effect is not obvious). It is difficult to explain the experimental fact that the same charge is produced by friction of the same substance with the theory of electron gain and loss, which becomes the challenge of the theory of electron gain and loss.

It is difficult to explain the fact that the same charge is produced by friction of the same substance with the current electron gain and loss theory, so the author puts forward a new way to explain it. The new viewpoint is that the positive charge of substance is the phenomenon with positive charge when the heat energy in substance is surplus, and the negative charge of substance is the phenomenon with negative charge when the heat energy in substance is lack. Neutral charge is the phenomenon of neutral charge when the heat energy in the substance is saturated. This view is the development of the idea that positive and negative charges can transform each other.

This new viewpoint explains the same-sex charge produced by the friction of the same substance: because the substance is formed by the combination of heat energy and Entity, the friction of the same substance causes the overflow of heat energy due to the destruction of the surface structure of the ubstance, and the Entity on the surface of the substance becomes the state of lack of heat energy after the heat energy is distributed, so the surface of the substance shows the negative charge, thus the friction of the same substance occurs The experimental phenomenon of the same-sex negative charge.

2. New understanding of "matter,heat , Entity"

Understanding of "matter": matter is composed of "Entity" and "heat energy". The combination of them can produce the structure of atomic force and synthesize matter.

Understanding of "thermal energy": the concentration of "thermal energy" is expressed by temperature, The higher the temperature of heat is, the greater the concentration of "thermal energy". There is 3K temperature thermal energy in the vacuum of the universe,There is heat energy in nature.

Heat energy has two kinds of propagation characteristics: one is that the high-pressure heat,energy propagates in the low-pressure heat energy according to the "voltage characteristic mode", that is, the electric and electromagnetic radiation propagates at the speed of light, This is the propagation characteristics of high pressure and strong heat energy. The other is that when the low-pressure heat energy propagates in the high-pressure heat energy, it propagates slowly according to the "concentration diffusion mode" rather than the "voltage characteristic mode" of light speed.

Understanding of "entity": each element represents a different entity. Each element has different "saturated heat energy" when it is combined with heat energy as a different entity. Different "saturated heat energy" corresponds to different "saturated voltage value". This "fixed voltage value of saturated heat energy" carried by various substance entities is called "marked voltage energy" of various substance entities. That is to say, in the "neutron" of each element there is a "marked voltage energy" which represents the entity's own characteristics. The characteristic of "marked voltage energy" is that each element entity has a fixed emission voltage value when it emits heat energy, "marked voltage energy" determines the intensity of each element entity's "emission electromagnetic field".

In my opinion, the establishment of the periodic table of elements is to use strong X-ray to irradiate various elements to activate their respective "marked voltage energy" implied in each element "neutron". After the "marked voltage energy" of each element entity is activated, different wavelength laws are formed by the damping drag of "Earth emission voltage energy [1]" in the propagation, thus each element appears All of them have their own sub-x-ray phenomenon, that is, the sign of roentgen radiation. The existence of "marked voltage energy" is the essential reason for the existence of marked roentgen radiation. The periodic table of elements is established according to the different wavelength rule of secondary X-ray in each element. The establishment of periodic table of elements proves that there are different entities in the material world.

3. New understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model":

According to the view that matter is composed of Entity and thermal energy and they have combining characteristics, when the thermal energy in particle body is deficient, particles show negative charge (such as electrons), when the thermal energy in particle body is saturated, particles show neutral charge (such as neutrons), when the thermal energy in particle body is surplus, particles show positive charge (such as protons). This view is the development of the idea that the positive and negative charges of aidelong can transform each other.

The "particle charge dynamic atomic model" is: the negative charge "electron" which lacks heat energy absorbs heat energy outside the atomic core. With the increase of heat energy contained in the "electron" entity, the negative charge of the "electron" itself weakens, and the "electron" rotates around the atomic core at the same time (see reference [4] for the formation reason and vector reason of the electron rotating around the atomic core) Because of the increase of heat energy, a large number of "electrons" with weak negative electricity are attracted by the Entity in the nucleus, which move towards the near region of the nucleus and assemble into larger particles. When the thermal energy of these large particles is saturated, they enter the nuclear shell area and become neutral charged "neutrons". The thermal energy continues to combine with the Entity "neutrons". When the thermal energy of "neutrons" is surplus, they become positively charged "protons" and enter the atomic nucleus. When the voltage value generated by the continuous combination of "proton" and thermal energy is greater than the value of the external constraint voltage (the value of the external constraint voltage refers to the voltage value emitted from the planet to outer space, see reference [1]),    the thermal energy in the "proton" will follow the "voltage characteristic mode" to emit electromagnetic radiation towards the outside of the atom at the speed of light.After the "proton" releases the heat energy, the large particle body migrates and decomposes to the outside of the nucleus due to the need of absorbing the heat energy. This natural decomposition effect is a phenomenon that the body is conducive to the absorption of the heat energy. Thus, the phenomenon of "proton" breaking down and injecting particles outside the nucleus after losing heat energy is formed. These particles injected outside the nucleus become "electrons" outside the nucleus again. These solid particles have dynamic migration effect all the time. In the process of dynamic migration, when the "proton" stores heat energy before the electromagnetic radiation is emitted, the particle stagnation occurs The retention effect forms the nucleus. The above viewpoint is my new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atom model" under the framework of "dynamic theory of positive and negative charge mutual conversion". At present, there is a dot effect in the electron cloud observed under the electron microscope, which is the imaging of "electron" ejecting from the nucleus. This imaging verifies the scientificity of the new theory.

From the view of the whole atom: in the atom, the balance of electrostatic attraction and electrostatic positive and negative charge is formed between negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons, and the atom shows no external electricity. Atoms only show the characteristics of absorbing and releasing heat energy. The absorbed heat energy is the low energy heat energy which slowly enters into the atoms according to the principle of concentration diffusion, while the heat energy released by atoms is the high-pressure and strong electromagnetic heat energy which is released in the way of electromagnetic radiation according to the voltage characteristics.

II. DISCLOSURE OF THE ESSENTIAL CAUSES OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION AND REPULSION

1. Understanding of gravity and repulsion:

The new understanding of "particle charge dynamic atomic model" helps us to find out the essential reasons for the phenomena of absorbing "thermal energy" and releasing electromagnetic radiation, and the root of the existence of gravitation and repulsion between substances.

In a word, the "heat absorption ability" of matter is the "universal gravitation" of matter.

The repulsion force of matter is simply said: the repulsion force between the atoms (between the stars) is formed by the "electromagnetic field emission" generated by the mutual release of strong electromagnetic heat energy.

At the micro level, the phenomenon of repulsion between atoms is the repulsion effect formed by the "electromagnetic field" generated by the release of strong electromagnetic heat energy between atoms.

At the macro level, the planet continuously absorbs low "heat energy" and continuously emits strong electromagnetic heat energy to outer space, which results in the permanent existence of strong electromagnetic radiation heat energy "emits magnetic field". Because of the repulsive force of the "launching magnetic field" between the two adjacent stars, the "launching magnetic field" of the sun appears, no matter how thin the earth's "launching magnetic field" magnetosphere is compressed, nor can it directly invade the earth's surface. This view reveals the mystery that strong solar wind can not directly invade the earth's surface for many years.

2. The understanding of "the law of balance space between gravity and repulsion":

The existence of opposites and unity of "universal gravitation" and "universal repulsion" in the material world: the absorption and release of "heat energy" by matter is the root of the existence of "universal repulsion" between matter, that is to say, the existence of the "emission magnetic field" between the two matter bodies determines the mutual repulsion in the short distance, and the reason for the absorption of heat energy by the matter in the long distance determines the mutual attraction between the matter.

There is a law of the balance distance of attraction and repulsion force in the occurrence of "attraction" and "repulsion force": that is, the "repulsion force" generated by the "emission magnetic field" of neighboring stars (atoms) and the "gravitational force" generated by the absorption of "heat energy". Through the self adjustment of the distance between stars (atoms), the repulsion force and gravity between stars (atoms) are balanced, thus producing stars (atoms) The law of the balance distance between the gravitational and repulsive forces. All matter (atoms, stars) in the universe are in the natural law of "the law of balance distance between gravity and repulsion".

3 Understanding of the "law of the balance distance between gravitational and repulsive forces" of stars and planets:

Due to the large electromagnetic energy released between stars, the space between stars is large. The emission of electromagnetic energy between planets is relatively small, so the distance between planets is small. As a huge "entity", stellar bodies show a huge demand for "heat energy", which is reflected in the uptake of "heat energy" by stars in the space of the super system of the universe (such as the solar system), so as to meet the strong demand of stars for "heat energy". Because the mass difference between stars and planets is very large, the planets are controlled by the gravitation formed by the heat absorption of stars. Planets become stars' satellites on the basis of following the law of the balance distance of attraction and repulsion forces. Due to the existence of the attraction and repulsion dependence among the planets, all the planets in the stellar system are in the same plane system structure, and the plane system structure formed by the stars in the galaxy is the same principle.

In a word, the combination of the strength of the "emission magnetic field" (repulsion) and the "ability to absorb heat energy" (gravitation) of the stars in the universe with the distance between the stars determines the positions of the dynamic balance of the stars in the universe space on the basis of following the "law of the balance distance of the repulsion forces between the stars", thus forming the balance state of the operation of the stars in the whole universe.

     

III. REVELATION OF THE NATURE OF MANY GRAVIATIONAL AND REPULSIVE PHENOMENA IN THE UNIVERSE

1. Reveal the causes of the formation of gravity:

The earth is an aggregate of atoms, and the phenomenon of repulsion of short-range tension with atoms as the unit is not easy to see between micro atoms, which is mainly manifested in the far-range absorption characteristics of relative micro bodies, thus the relative cohesion effect of micro bodies (such as clouds floating in the air) appears, thus forming the cohesion effect of the whole macro earth's own materials. Through this kind of condensation effect of "heat energy" absorbed by atoms, the earth condenses in space and becomes an independent planet. And it follows the requirement of absorbing "heat energy" from outer space to supplement the "entity" in the earth. This characteristic of absorbing low energy "heat energy" from outer space and condensing "heat energy" to the earth's core constitutes the gravitational effect of centripetal condensation of all materials of the earth itself.The low energy "heat energy" absorbed by the earth from outer space refers to the "heat energy" radiated to the earth from other "stars" and "planets", as well as the 3K temperature "heat energy" existing in the space.

The earth's atmosphere is bound by this centripetal condensation of "heat energy" gravity and does not dissipate into space,because the "heat energy" contained in the earth's atmosphere and all the substances on the earth is far higher than the 3K temperature "heat energy" in the space. The centripetal condensing gravitational effect of the centripetal condensing "heat energy" of the earth forms the "centripetal condensing gravity" for all the substances on the earth (all the substances on the earth include: the earth's core, mantle, crust, all the substances on the earth's surface and atmosphere). At the same time, there is a law that the concentration of the "heat energy" condensing from outer space to the earth's core is increasing in turn, and more and more towards the earth The higher the concentration of "thermal energy" in the center of the ball, the higher the temperature. At present, it is known that the temperature of each kilometer of the earth's core is increased by 1 degree, which leads to the formation of the high temperature liquid phase transition effect of the earth's core material. This view reveals the natural mystery of the earth's hot core. The gravitational effect of "heat energy" condensing from outer space to the core of the planet is also the essential reason for high-temperature phase of massive stars to become liquid or gaseous.

The gravitational effect of the centripetal condensation of "heat energy" of the earth's material substance constitutes the phenomenon of gravitation on all matters on the earth, which is the reason for the formation of the earth's gravitation.

2. Reveal the cause of earth rotation:

In the solar system, although the sun and the earth are located in the space of "the law of balance distance between gravity and repulsion", there is still an imbalance between the sun and the earth. That is to say, the "thermal energy" absorbed by the earth facing the sun is larger than that of the earth's back, so the electromagnetic intensity released from the front is larger than that of the earth's back, and the repulsion force of the earth's front to the sun is larger than that of the back (repulsion effect). However, the gravitational effect of the earth's Yin is greater than that of the earth's Yang. The gravitational and repulsive effects of the different positions of the earth's Yin and Yang constitute the source power of the earth's rotation. The earth realizes the dynamic balance of attraction and repulsion through this effect of self transformation, which is the essential reason for the existence of permanent rotation source power of the earth.

3. Reveal the reasons for the formation of the elliptical orbit and structural changes of comets:

More than 1600 comets have been found orbiting the sun, the most famous being Halley's comet. For the special elliptical orbit of comets, this paper considers that it is caused by the change of the repulsive force between comets and the sun. Although comets absorb and release "thermal energy" in equilibrium, from the perspective of the whole orbit of comets around the sun, when comets move far away from the sun in the thin and low "thermal energy" content area of space (that is, the space area far away from the sun), the content of "thermal energy" in comets is less, because the existence of the law of gravitation depends on the absorption of "thermal energy" between matter atoms ”The reason is that the comet with low "thermal energy" content appears the effect of weakened cohesion, loose structure and darkened comet nucleus.At this time, comets with less "thermal energy" are moving towards the sun's star with the characteristics of "thermal energy" radiation source, so as to obtain the supplement of "thermal energy".When the comet moves to the near area of the sun, it gets a lot of "heat energy" from the electromagnetic radiation energy released by the sun. After the comet is filled with a lot of "heat energy", under the repulsive force formed between the sun and the comet's "emission magnetic field", the comet is repelled by the sun, and under the action of the inertial force, an elliptical orbit around the star appears in the movement between the comet and the star The comet filled with "heat energy" has a high content of "heat energy". Due to the existence of the law of universal gravitation, it depends on the absorption of "heat energy" between the matter atoms, which shows that the comet with high content of "heat energy" has a stronger cohesive force, showing the effect of the contraction of the comet body and the enhancement of the brightness of the comet nucleus. This is the reason for the change of comet's elliptical orbit and loose compact structure.

4.Reveal the causes of the formation of black hole gravity:

Substance is a combination of Entity and heat energy, which has the characteristics of combination. All matter contains heat energy, A "pure entity" without "heat energy" at all cannot be called a "substance",Because "pure entity" can't form the structure of atomic force without the participation of heat energy, "pure entity" is the "matter" in the black hole of the universe,and this "matter" in the black hole can not be called matter, it is only a single entity, because the single entity in the black hole of the universe has a strong absorption of heat energy As a result, the electromagnetic radiation heat energy light emitted by the stars is swallowed by the black hole, which is the essential reason for the absorption characteristics of the black hole in the universe.

Postscript: the author also has new opinions on the essential causes of the formation of geomagnetic field, such as the revelation of the relationship between the intensity of the earth's emitted magnetic field and the composition of the earth's elements, the revelation of the causes of the formation of the earth's magnetic field, and the revelation of the causes of the formation of the geomagnetic field in the Allen radiation area. For details, please refer to the author's monograph "new vision of physics research in the 21st century" [4] [5] and the newly published paper "Revelation of the truth of Natural Science in the material world" [1].

For more information, please refer to the website: www.21ufo.com, author's email: 1092375690@qq.com

MAIN REFERENCES

[1] Zhou Jianghua, revealing the truth of Natural Science in the material world, scientific and technological innovation, 2018 (No. 32), pp. 137-143.

[2] translated by song Yusheng, Li Xinzhang, Hui Hexing and Wang Kangmao, speech collection of Nobel Prize winners, physics (Volume I), published by Science Press, 1985.

[3] Zhou Jianghua, experimental phenomenon and explanation of the same-sex negative charge produced by friction of the same substance, Journal of Ordnance Engineering College (Proceedings of the ninth electrostatic academic conference of Chinese Physical Society), Vol. 12 (2000), supplement, 295-298.

[4] Zhou Jianghua, new vision of physics research in the 21st century, Jilin Science and Technology Press, 2005.

[5] Zhou Jianghua, science and Technology Daily: Enlightenment from the book "new vision of physics research in the 21st century", August 21, 2007 (1), serial September 11, 2007 (2).